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第一章

【1】For a description and plan of the tombs, see L. H.Vincentet al.,Hebron:Le Haram El-Khalil.Sépulture des Patriarches(Paris 1923);Encyclopaedia Judaica, xi 671.

【2】G. L.Strange, Palestine Under the Moslems(London 1890),309ff.

【3】E. Sarna, Understanding Genesis(London 1967),168ff.

【4】Herbert Han, updated by H. D.Hummel, The Old Testament in Modern Research(London 1970);R.Grant, A Short History of the Interpretation of the Bible(New York 1963).

【5】English translation published Edinburgh 1885;New York 1957.

【6】M. Noth, The History of Israel(2nd edn, London 1960);A.Alt, Essays on Old Testament History and Religion(New York 1968).

【7】G. Mendenhall and M.Greenberg,‘Method in the Study of Early Hebrew History',in J.Ph.Hyatt(ed.),The Bible in Modern Scholarship(Nashville, New York 1964),15—43.

【8】See W. F.Albright, Archaeology and the Religion of Israel(3rd edn, Baltimore 1953)and Yahweh and the Gods of Canaan(London 1968);Kathleen Kenyon, Archaeology in the Holy Land(4th edn, London 1979)and The Bible and Recent Archaeology(London 1978).

【9】Deuteronomy 4:19.

【10】R. D.Barnett, Illustrations of Old Testament History(London 1966),ch.1,‘The Babylonian Legend of the Flood'.

【11】Genesis 11:31.

【12】L. Woolley et al.,Ur Excavations(British Museum, London,1954—);L.Woolley, The Sumerians(London 1954).

【13】M. E.L.Mallowan,‘Noah's Flood Reconsidered',Iraq 26(1964).

【14】W. G.Lambert and A.R.Millard, Atrahasis:The Babylonian Story of the Flood(London 1970);E.Sollberger, The Babylonian Legend of the Flood(3rd edn, London 1971).

【15】Cambridge Ancient History, I i(3rd edn 1970),353ff.

【16】Genesis 9:18.

【17】Encyclopaedia Judaica, v 330;Michael Grant, A History of Ancient Israel(London 1984),32.

【18】For a summary of the calculations, see R. K.Harrison, Introduction to the New Testament(London 1970).

【19】See Kenyon, Archaeology of the Holy Land(London 1960),for the concordance between the Middle Bronze Age tombs outside Jericho and the Cave of Machpelah;Nelson Glueck,‘The Age of Abraham in the Negev',Biblical Archaeologist 18(1955).

【20】A. Parrot, Mari, une ville perdue(Paris 1935).

【21】D. H.Gordon,‘Biblical Customs and the Nuzi Tablets',Biblical Archaeologist 3(1940).

【22】P. Matthiae,‘Ebla à l’Époque d’Akkad’,Académie des inscriptions et belles-lettres, compte-rendu(Paris 1976).

【23】A. Malamat,‘King Lists of the Old Babylonian Period and Biblical Genealogies',Journal of the American Oriental Society 88(1968);‘Northern Canaan and the Mari Texts',in J.A.Sanders(ed.),Near Eastern Archaeology in the Twentieth Century(Garden City, NY 1970),167—177;and‘Mari',Biblical Archaeologist,34(1971).

【24】Genesis 23:29—34.

【25】Quoted in R. K.Harrison, Introduction to the Old Testament(London 1970).

【26】C. H.Gordon,‘Abraham of Ur',in D.Winton Thomas(ed.),Hebrew and Semitic Studies Presented to G.R.Driver(Oxford 1962),77—84;E.A.Speiser, Genesis, Anchor Bible(Garden City, NY 1964).See also M.Grunberg,‘Another Look at Rachel's Theft of the Terraphin',Journal of Biblical Literature 81(1962).

【27】Kenyon, The Bible and Recent Archaeology,7—24.

【28】J.-R. Kupper, Les Nomades de Mésopotamie au temps des rois de Mari(Paris 1957);I.J.Gelb,‘The Early History of the West Semitic Peoples’,Journal of Cuneiform Studies,15(1961).

【29】E. A.Speiser,‘The Biblical Idea of History in its Common Near Eastern Setting',in Judah Goldin(ed.),The Jewish Experience(Yale 1976).

【30】Genesis 26:16.

【31】Genesis 16:12.

【32】J. L.Myers, The Linguistic and Literary Form of the Book of Ruth(London 1955);Albright, Yahweh and the Gods of Canaan,1—25;S.Daiches, The Song of Deborah(London 1926).

【33】S. W.Baron, Social and Religious History of the Jews(2nd edn, New York 1952),i I 44.Grant, A History of Ancient Israel,32ff.

【34】Joshua 24:2.

【35】Isaiah 29:22.

【36】Speiser, op. cit.

【37】G. E.Wright,‘How Did Early Israel Differ from Her Neighbours?',Biblical Archaeology 6(1943),Baron, op.cit.,i I 48.

【38】Genesis 22:2 says‘thine only son Isaac',meaning of course by Sarah.

【39】Encyclopaedia Judaica, ii 480—486;Philo, De Abrahamo,177—199,200—207;Maimonides, Guide of the Perplexed,3:24;Nahmanides, Works, ed. C.B.Chavel(London 1959),i 125—126.

【40】Fear and Trembling(trans.),Penguin Classics(Harmondsworth 1985).

【41】Ernst Simon in Conservative Judaism 12(Spring 1958).

【42】Genesis 22:14.

【43】Ibid.,22:18.

【44】This theme is ingeniously discussed in Dan Jacobson, The Story of the Stories:The Chosen People and its God(London 1982).

【45】Abot 6:10(baraita, Kinyan Torah);quoted in Samuel Belkin, In His Image:The Jewish Philosophy of Man as Expressed in the Rabbinical Tradition(London 1961).

【46】Midrash Tehillim 24:3.

【47】Leviticus 25:23;I Chronicles 29:15;Psalms 39:12.

【48】Genesis 15:1—6.

【49】Genesis 17:8.

【50】W. D.Davies, The Territorial Dimensions of Judaism(Berkeley 1982),9—17.

【51】Gerhard von Rad, The Problem of the Hexateuch and Other Essays(trans.,Edinburgh 1966);J. A.Sanders, Torah and Canon(Philadelphia 1972).

【52】In Genesis 32:28 and 35:10.

【53】In Genesis 37:1.

【54】Genesis 29:30;35:16—18;48:5—6.

【55】Genesis 25:13—16;22:20—24;10:16—30;36:10—13.

【56】W. F.Albright,‘The Song of Deborah in the Light of Archaeology',Bulletin of the American School of Oriental Research,62(1936);H.M.Orlinsky,‘The Tribal System of Israel and Related Groups in the Period of Judges',Oriens Antiquus,1(1962).

【57】O. Eissfeld in Cambridge Ancient History, II ii ch.xxxiv,‘The Hebrew Kingdom',537ff.

【58】Genesis 14:18—20;17:1;21:33.

【59】For Shechem, see W. Harrelson, B.W.Anderson and G.E.Wright,‘Shechem,“Navel of the Land”',inBiblical Archaeologist,20(1957).

【60】Genesis 48:22.

【61】Joshua 8:30—35.

【62】Cambridge Ancient History, II ii 314—317.

【63】Baron, op. cit.,i I 22.

【64】Genesis 41:39.

【65】Encyclopaedia Judaica, x 205.

【66】Exodus 1:11.

【67】Cambridge Ancient History, II ii 321—322.

【68】H. H.Ben Sasson(ed.),A History of the Jewish People(trans.,Harvard 1976),42ff.

【69】I Kings 1:6 refers to‘the 480th year after the children of Israel were come out of the land of Egypt, in the fourth year of Solomon's reign over Israel…….'Solomon's reign is the frst in Israel's history for which we have absolute dating.

【70】B. Couroyer,‘La résidence Ramesside du Delta et la Rames Biblique’,Revue biblique 53(1946).

【71】Ben Sasson, op. cit.,44;Cambridge Ancient History, II ii 322—323.

【72】Deuteronomy 4:23—24;Exodus 19:4—6.

【73】Exodus 4:10ff.

【74】Exodus 18:14—24.

【75】Sifra 45d;Encyclopaedia Judaica, xii 568.

【76】Eusebius(died c. 359 AD)summarized much of this tradition in his Praeparatio Evangelica,9:26—27 etc.

【77】Josephus, Contra Apion,2:154.

【78】Philo, Questiones et Solutiones in Gesesin,4:152;De Providentia,111.

【79】Numenius, Fragments(ed. E.A.Leemans,1937),19,32.

【80】Reproduced in Josephus, Contra Apion,1:228ff;Theodore Reinach, Textes d'auteurs grecs et romains rélatifs au Judaisme(Paris 1895).

【81】Marx to Engels,10 May 1861;30 July 1862:Marx-Engels Works, vol. xxx,165,259.

【82】Moses and Monotheism(London 1939).

【83】Exodus 1:9—10.

【84】C. J.Gadd, Ideas of Divine Rule in the Ancient Near East(London 1948).

【85】Speiser, op. cit.

【86】Enid B. Mellor(ed.),The Making of the Old Testament(Cambridge 1972).

【87】For examples of codes see James B. Pritchard(ed.),Ancient Near Eastern TextsRelating to the Old Testament(3rd edn, Princeton 1969).

【88】Moshe Greenberg,‘Some Postulates of Biblical Criminal Law',in Goldin, op. cit.

【89】Deuteronomy 22:22—23;Leviticus 20:10.

【90】Exodus 21:22ff.

【91】Exodus 21:29;See A. van Selms,‘The Goring Ox in Babylonian and Biblical Law',Archiv Orientali 18(1950).

【92】Deuteronomy 24:16;5:9;Exodus 20:5. There are, however, examples of the law of talion applying in the Biblical narratives, for example Saul's sons.Joshua 7;II Samuel 21.

【93】Deuteronomy 25:3;E. A.Hoebel:The Law of Primitive Man(Harvard 1954);G.R.Driver and J.C.Miles, The Babylonian Laws,2 vols(Oxford 1952);W.Kornfeld,‘L'Adultère dans l’orient antique’,Revue biblique 57(1950).

【94】J. J.Stamm and M.E.Andrew, The Ten Commandments in Recent Research(New York 1967).

【95】Pritchard, Ancient Near Eastern Texts,35.

【96】G. Mendenhall, Biblical Archaeology 17(1954).

【97】Set out conveniently, with Biblical text references, in Encyclopaedia Judaica, v 763—782.

【98】Exodus 21:1 to 22:16;O. Eissfeldt inCambridge Ancient History, II ii ch.xxxiv,563:see J.P.M.Smith, The Origin and History of Hebrew Law(Chicago 1960).

【99】A. van Selms, Marriage and Family Life in Ugaritic Literature(New York 1954).

【100】D. R.Mace, Hebrew Marriage(New York 1953).

【101】Roland de Vaux, Ancient Israel:Its Life and Institutions(trans.,New York 1961),46—47.

【102】J. M.Sasson,‘Circumcision in the Ancient Near East',Journal of Biblical Literature,85(1966).

【103】Exodus 4:25;Joshua 5:2—3.

【104】Baron, op. cit.,i I 6—7.

【105】Ezekiel 20:12.

【106】Leviticus 17:14;Genesis 9:4;Genesis 38:24. See I.M.Price,‘Swine in Old Testament Taboos',Journal of Biblical Literature 44(1925).

【107】I Kings 22:11.

【108】II Kings 2:23.

【109】A. H.Godbey,‘Incense and Poison Ordeals in the Ancient Orient',American Journal of Semitic Languages,46(1929—30).

【110】See examples with references in George Fohrer, History of Israelite Religion(trans.,London 1973),233.

【111】Von Rad, op. cit.,‘Some Aspects of the Old Testament World View'.

【112】Exodus 34:13—16.

【113】This was the view of the Mishraic sage Simeon ben Assai;Sifra on Leviticus 19:18.

【114】Contra Apionem(Loeb Classic 1951),ii 165.

【115】Berakot 2,2.

【116】De Specialibus legibus(Loeb Classics 1950),iv 237.

【117】Belkin, op. cit.,15—18.

【118】I Corinthians 1:19—20.

【119】For a discussion of the site of Mt Sinai, seeCambridge Ancient History, II ii 324ff.

【120】Baron, op. cit.,i I 48—49.

【121】Ibid.,i I 23.

【122】Cf. W.F.Albright,‘Exploring in Sinai with the University of California Expedition',Bulletin of the American School of Oriental Research,109(1948).

【123】Cambridge Ancient History, II ii 327.

【124】Exodus 17:8—13.

【125】Numbers 27:15—21;Deuteronomy 34:9.

【126】Joshua 6:16—20.

【127】Joshua 6:21,26;Kathleen Kenyon, Digging Up Jericho(London 1957).

【128】Joshua 9:27.

【129】James B. Pritchard, Gibeon, Where the Sun Stood Still:The Discovery of a Biblical City(Princeton 1962).

【130】Joshua 10:9—13.

【131】Joshua 11:4—11.

【132】Yigael Yadin, Hazor:The Rediscovery of a Great City of the Bible(London 1975).

【133】Joshua 24:13.

【134】W. F.Albright, From the Stone Age to Christianity(Baltimore 1946),194,212,and Archaeology and the Religion of Israel(3rd edn, Baltimore 1953),3,102.

【135】Baron, op. cit.,II 55.

【136】Judges 4:8.

【137】Judges 3:15—30.

【138】Judges 4:17—21.

【139】Judges 11:1—3.

【140】Judges 11:37.

【141】Judges 16:28.

【142】See A. van Selms inJournal of Near Eastern Studies,9(1950).

【143】Judges 12:5—6.

【144】I Samuel 21:13—14.

【145】II Samuel 23:20—21.

【146】Judges 9.

【147】Joshua 24:8,13;Judges 11:17ff.;II Samuel 7:23;Numbers 33:50ff.

【148】Deuteronomy 9:4ff.;see also 18:9—14,29:22ff. and Psalms 44:3.

【149】T. Dothan,‘Archaeological Reflections on the Philistine Problem',Antiquity and Survival 2,2/3(1957).

【150】J. A.Montgomery,‘Archival Data in the Book of Kings',Journal of Biblical Literature,53(1934).

【151】I Samuel 10:5.

【152】II Kings 3:15.

【153】Isaiah 28:7.

【154】I Samuel 2:19.

【155】I Samuel 15:22.

【156】I Samuel 7:16—17.

【157】I Samuel 10:17;12:1—25.

【158】I Samuel 10:25.

【159】S. Mowinckel,‘General Oriental and Specific Israelite Elements in the Israelite Conception of the Sacral Kingdom',Numen, iv(1959).

【160】I Samuel 8:22.

【161】I Samuel 5:3.

【162】I Samuel 14:52.

【163】I Samuel 17:39.

【164】I Samuel 16:18.

【165】Cambridge Ancient History, II ii 579—580.

【166】II Samuel 20:1.

【167】Albright, Archaeology and the Religion of Israel,158ff.

【168】II Samuel 5:8.

【169】Kathleen Kenyon, Royal Cities of the Old Testament(London 1971)andDigging Up Jerusalem(London 1974);Encyclopaedia Judaica, ix 1379—1382.

【170】Belkin, op. cit.,117.

【171】I Kings 5:3.

【172】De Vaux, op. cit.,253—265.

【173】I Kings 2:3—4.

【174】II Samuel 18:7.

【175】I Kings 5:13—16.

【176】I Kings 9:15.

【177】Kenyon, The Bible and Recent Archaeology, ch. 4,‘Palestine in the Time of David and Solomon',44—66.

【178】Cambridge Ancient History, II ii 589.

【179】Kenyon, Royal Cities.

【180】I Kings 4:7—19.

【181】I Kings 11:1.

【182】See Nelson Glueck's findings in the Bulletin of the American School of Oriental Research(1938—40);I Kings 9:26.

【183】I Kings 7:1—12.

【184】Kenyon, Royal Cities.

【185】Joan Comay, The Temple of Jerusalem, with the History of the Temple Mount(London 1975).

【186】Haran, Temples and Temple Service,28f.

【187】Numbers 10:35—36.

【188】De Vaux, op. cit.,305ff.

【189】I Kings 12:4.

【190】I Kings 12:14.

【191】I Kings 22:34—37.

【192】Deuteronomy 27:17.

【193】I Kings 17:3—4.

【194】I Kings 21:25—26.

【195】II Kings 2:23—24.

【196】Grant, History of Ancient Israel, ch. 11,‘Northern Prophets and History',122—134.

【197】II Kings 10.

【198】I Kings 21:19—20.

【199】Amos 5:21—4.

【200】Amos 7:10—13:

【201】Baba Batra 9a;Shalom Spiegel,‘Amos V. Amaziah',in Goldin, op.cit.

【202】II Kings 7:23—24.

【203】For textual analysis of Hosea, see Encyclopaedia Judaica, viii 1010—1025.

【204】Hosea 8:7;10:13.

【205】Hosea 4:11.

【206】Hosea 5:9;4:5;9:7. See Grant, History of Ancient Israel,129ff.

【207】Hosea 6:1—2.

【208】II Kings 11:15—17.

【209】II Chronicles 32:3—5.

【210】Kenyon, Royal Cities.

【211】II Kings 19:35;Herodotus, Histories, book II:141.

【212】II Kings 18:21.

【213】II Kings 23:21—23.

【214】Encyclopaedia Judaica, ix 44—71;O. Eissfeldt, The Old Testament, an Introduction(London 1965),301—330.

【215】Grant, History of Ancient Israel,148—149.

【216】Isaiah 21:11;22:13;38:1;5:8;3:15.

【217】Isaiah 1:18;6:3;2:4;35:1.

【218】Isaiah 7:14;11:6;9:6.

【219】H. H.Rowley, The Faith of Israel(London 1953),122;Isaiah 42:1—4;49:1—6,etc.

【220】II Kings 3:27;Psalms 89:6—9;Genesis 20:1ff.;12:10ff.;Exodus 7:8ff.

【221】Isaiah 44:6.

【222】Fohrer, op. cit.,172ff.,324—325,290;see also N.W.Snaith,‘The Advent of Monotheism in Israel',Annual of Leeds Univ.Oriental Society, v(1963—5).

【223】J. P.Hyatt, Jeremiah, Prophet of Courage and Hope(New York 1958).

【224】Jeremiah 5:23;5:31.

【225】Jeremiah 20:14;15:18;11:19.

【226】II Kings 24:14ff.

【227】II Kings 25:18ff.

【228】Jeremiah 44:28.

第二章

【1】For Ezekiel, see G. von Rad, Old Testament Theology II(1965),220—237;Encyclopaedia Judaica, vi 1078—1098.

【2】Ezekiel 1:3

【3】Ezekiel 37:1—10

【4】Ezekiel 18:1ff

【5】Deuteronomy 6:6—8

【6】Isaiah 40:4;see also 10:33;14:12;26:5—6;29:18;47:8—9.

【7】I Samuel 2:1—10.

【8】S. W.Baron, Social and Religious History of the Jews((2nd edn, New York 1952),i I 22.

【9】B. Porten, Archives from Elephantine:The Life of an Ancient Jewish Military Colony(New York 1968).

【10】W. D.Davies, The Territorial Dimensions of Judaism(Berkeley 1982),70.

【11】For Cyrus'religious beliefs and consequences see W. D.Davies and Louis Finkelstein(eds),Cambridge History of Judaism(Cambridge 1984),i 281ff.

【12】Quoted inibid.,287.

【13】Isaiah 45:1

【14】Ezra 1:1—4

【15】Ezra 4:1ff

【16】Cambridge History of Judaism,70—74,135—136

【17】Nehemiah 4:18

【18】Cambridge History of Judaism,344

【19】Ibid.,398—400.

【20】Nehemiah 10:28

【21】Judges 8:14

【22】Baron, op. cit.,i I, footnote 8,323.

【23】Contra Alpionem,1:37

【24】R. K.Harrison, Introduction to the Old Testament(1970)

【25】Deuteronomy 4:2,also 12:32

【26】I Chronicles 2:5

【27】Sanhedrein 12:10

【28】C. D.Ginsburg, Introduction to the Maseretico-Critical Edition of the Hebrew Bible(1966 edn by H.M.Orlinsky);H.B.Swete, An Introduction to the Old Testament in Greek(London 1968);F.G.Kenyon, Our Bible and the Ancient Manuscripts(London 1965);M.Gaster, The Samaritans:Their History, Doctrine and Literature(London 1925);Harrison, op.cit.;Encyclopaedia Judaica, iv 814—36;V 1396ff.

【29】Joshua 8:29;4:20

【30】Psalms 3,5,6,7,9—10,13,17,22,25—28,31,35,36,38,39,41,42,43,51,52,54—57,59,61,63,64,69,71,77,86,88,102,120,123,130,140—143

【31】Proverbs 22:17 to 23:11

【32】For Job see especially H. H.Rowley,‘The Book of Job and its Meaning',in From Moses to Qumran:Studies in the Old Testament(London 1963)and his Submission in Suffering and Other Essays(London 1951);Harrison, op.cit.;E.F.Sutcliffe,Providence and Suffering in the Old and New Testaments(London 1955);for the lit-erature on the Book of Job, see C.Kuhl inTheological Review,21(1953).

【33】Ecclesiasticus 24:3—10

【34】I Corinthians 1:19—27;see Gerhard von Rad, Problems of the Hexateuch and Other Essays(trans.,Edinburgh 1966).

【35】I Maccabees 9:27.

【36】Zechariah 13:3ff.

【37】Ecclesiasticus 24:33;Enid B. Mellor(ed.),The Making of the Old Testament(Cambridge 1972).

【38】Roland de Vaux, Ancient Israel:Its Life and Institutions(trans.,New York 1961),343—344;for earliest references, seeEncyclopaedia Judaica, XV 579—581.

【39】Ezra 2:64—65;pop. of Jerusalem in Pseudo-Hecateus, quoted by Josephus:Contra Apionem,1:197;Encyclopaedia Judaica, xiii 870.

【40】Daniel 7:7.

【41】Ecclesiastes 5:8ff.;6;see Martin Hengel, Judaism and Hellenism(trans.,2 vols, London 1974),i 14—31.

【42】Davies, op. cit.,61;Harrison, op.cit.

【43】Jonah 4:11. See Michael Grant, A History of Ancient Israel(London,1984),194—195.

【44】Hengel, op. cit.,i 65—69;ii 46,notes 59—61.

【45】Ibid.,i 55—57.

【46】E. Bickermann, From Ezra to the Last of the Maccabees:The Foundations of Post-Biblical Judaism(New York 1962);Hengel, op.cit.,i 270.

【47】Jad. 4:6(frst century AD).

【48】Isocrates, Panegyr,4:50;H. C.Baldry, The Unity of Mankind in Greek Thought(Cambridge 1966),69ff.

【49】Sota 49b;quoted Hengel, op. cit.,i 76;see also ibid.,300ff.

【50】II Maccabees 4:12—14.

【51】H. H.Ben Sasson(ed.),A History of the Jewish People(trans.,Harvard 1976),202ff.

【52】Sukk,56b.

【53】Ezra 7:26.

【54】II Maccabees 13:3ff.;Josephus, Antiquities,12:384.

【55】I Maccabees 13:45.

【56】I Maccabees 13:51. For details of the crisis, see Ben Sasson, op.cit.,202—216.

【57】Hengel, op. cit.,291ff.

【58】E. Ebner, Elementary Education in Ancient Israel during the Tannaitic Period(New York 1956).

【59】Deuteronomy 31:19.

【60】Josephus, Antiquities,13:280.

【61】Ibid.,13:300.

【62】Sanhedrin 19a;Sot. 47a;Kid.66a.

【63】Josephus, Antiquities,14:380.

【64】For Herod see Stewart Perowne, The Life and Times of Herod the Great(London 1956);F. O.Busch, The Five Herods(New York 1958).

【65】Encyclopaedia Judaica, xiii 871.

【66】Deuteronomy 16:16;Exodus 23:17.

【67】For Herod's Temple, see Joan Comay, The Temple of Jerusalem, with the History of the Temple Mount(London 1975);Kathleen Kenyon, Digging Up Jerusalem(London 1974);Encyclopaedia Judaica, viii 383—385;XV 961ff.

【68】Antiquities,15:380—425,Wars,5:184—247.

【69】Josephus, Wars,4:262;5:17;Antiquities,16:14.

【70】Josephus, Wars,6:282.

【71】For Greeks and Jews, see Hengel, op. cit.,esp.310ff.;W.W.Tarn and G.T.Griffth, Hellenist Civilization(3rd edn, London 1952).

【72】Thanksgiving Psalm from Qumran Cave One;cf. Encyclopaedia Judaica, iii 179ff.

【73】Daniel 12:1—2.

【74】Enoch 1—5;37—71. See H.H.Rowley, The Relevance of Apocalyptic(London 1947).

【75】Numbers 25:7—17.

【76】Josephus, War,2:118.

【77】See, for instance, S. G.F.Brandon, Jesus and the Zealots(London 1967)and The Trial of Jesus of Nazareth(London 1968);W.R.Farmer, Maccabees, Zealots and Josephus(London 1956).

【78】A. Dupont-Sommer, The Jewish Sect of Qumran and the Essenes(New York 1954);H.A.Butler, Man and Society in the Qumran Community(London 1959).

【79】Ben Sasson, op. cit.,253—254;C.F.Kraeling, John the Baptist(London 1951).

【80】Isaiah 40:3.

【81】II Samuel 7;23:1—5;22:44—51.

【82】For instance, Psalm 18;Amos 9:11—12;Hosea 11:10;Ezekiel 37:15ff.

【83】Acts of the Apostles 5:34—40.

【84】M. Hooker, Jesus and the Servant(London 1959).

【85】John Bowker, Jesus and the Pharisees(Cambridge 1983),esp. 1—20.

【86】G. F.Moore, Judaism in the First Centuries of the Christian Era(London 1927)i 72—82;Bowker, op.cit.,32—33.

【87】Pes. 66a;Suk.20a;seeEncyclopaedia Judaica, viii 282—285.

【88】Shab. 31a.

【89】Mark 7:14—15;Bowker, op. cit.,44ff.

【90】E. Bamel(ed.),The Trial of Jesus(London 1970),esp.‘The Problem of the Historicity of the Sanhedrin Trial'.

【91】J. Blinzner,‘The Jewish Punishment of Stoning in the New Testament Period',and E.Bammel,‘Crucifxion as a punishment in Palestine',in E.Bammel, op.cit.,147—161 and 162—165.

【92】Encyclopaedia Judaica, X 12—13 and bibliography;H. Cohn, The Death of Jesus(New York 1971);S.G.F.Brandon, The Trial of Jesus of Nazareth(London 1968).

【93】By, for example, E. R.Goodenough,‘Paul and the Hellenization of Christianity',in J.Neusner(ed.),Religions in Antiquity(Leiden 1968),22—68.

【94】Samuel Sandmel, Judaism and Christian Beginnings(Oxford 1978),308—336.

【95】E. P.Sanders, Paul and Palestinian Judaism(London 1977),555—556.

【96】Mark 14:24—28.

【97】Galatians 3:29;Romans 4:12—25.

【98】Paul to the Colssians,3:9—11.

【99】Acts of the Apostles,7:28—60.

【100】Acts 15:5ff.;Galatians 2:6—9.

【101】J. N.Sevenster, The Roots of Pagan Anti-Semitism in the Ancient World(Leiden 1975),89ff.

【102】Quoted inibid.,90.

【103】Cotra Apionem,1:71

【104】Diodorus, Bibliotheca,34:1,1ff.;quoted inEncyclopaedia Judaica, iii 87ff.

【105】Wisdom of Solomon 12:3—11.

【106】Sevenster, op. cit.,8—11.

【107】Josephus, Antiquities,14:187,190ff.

【108】Ibid.,19:286ff.

【109】Quoted in Encyclopaedia Judaica, iii 90.

【110】Tacitus, Histories,5:13.

【111】Ben Sasson, op. cit.,296ff.

【112】Shaye J. D.Cohen, Josephus in Galilee and Rome:His Vita and Development as a Historian(Leiden 1979),appendix 1,243ff.;253ff.

【113】Listed inibid.,3—23.

【114】Ibid.,238—241.

【115】Ibid.,181.

【116】For analysis of Josephus'account, seeibid.,230ff.

【117】Josephus, Wars,2:408,433.

【118】Yigael Yadin, Masada:Herod's Fortress and the Zealots'Last Stand(London 1966).

【119】For Tacitus'anti-Semitism, see Histories,5:1—13;Annals,15:44;see also Juvenal's poem, Saturae,14:96ff.

【120】Cassius Dio, Roman History, book 69.

【121】Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History,4:6,2;Numbers 24:17.

【122】Jerusalem Talmud, Ta'an 4:7,68d;quoted Encyclopaedia Judaica, ii 488—492.

【123】For Akiva see L. Finkelstein, Akiva, Scholar, Saint and Martyr(New York,1962 edn).On the question of his joining the revolt see Chaim Raphael, A Coat of Many Colours(London,1979),190—198.

【124】Ta'an 4:68d;Encyclopaedia Judaica, vi 603.

【125】Yigael Yadin, Finds from the Bar Kokhba Period in the Cave Letters(New York 1963).

【126】Cassius Dio, Roman History, book 69.

【127】Quoted in Comay, op. cit.;Kenyon, Digging Up Jerusalem.

【128】S. G.Wilson, Luke and the Law(Cambridge 1983),103—106.

【129】S. G.F.Brandon, The Fall of Jerusalem and the Christian Church(2nd edn, London 1957).

【130】Barnabas Lindars, Jesus Son of Man:A Fresh Examination of the Son of Man Sayings in the Gospels in the Light of Recent Research of Judaism(London 1983).

【131】See, for instance, Geza Vermes, Jesus and the World of Judaism(London 1984).

【132】Franz Mussner, Tractate on the Jews:The Signifcance of Judaism for Christian Faith(trans.,Philadelphia 1984),180ff.

【133】4 Q Fl 1:8,quoted in Mussner, ibid.,185;John 8:37—44.

【134】Matthew 27:24ff.

【135】E. Hennecke and W.Schneemelcher, New Testament Apocrypha(Philadelphia 1965),1:179ff.

【136】Ecclesiasticus 36:7.

【137】Wayne A. Meeks, The First Urban Christians(Yale 1984).

【138】Philo's Complete Works, ed. and trans.F.H.Colson and G.H.Whitaker, are in 12 vols(Cambridge 1953—63);E.R.Goodenough, Introduction to Philo Judaeus(London 2nd edn 1962).

【139】Aboth Derabbi Nathan B,31.

【140】G. Bader, Jewish Spiritual Heroes(New York 1940),i 411—436.

【141】Rachel Wischnitzen, The Messianic Theme in the Paintings of the Dura Synagogue(Chicago 1948).

【142】C. Hollis and Ronald Brownrigg, Holy Places(London 1969);Moshe Perelman and Yaacov Yanni, Historical Sites in Israel(London 1964).

【143】For the full list of subjects covered, seeEncyclopaedia Judaica, XV 751.

【144】Ibid.,1283—1285.

【145】Leviticus Rabbah 34,3;Philo, Leg. All.3:69;De Pot.19—20;Taanit 11a;Yer.Nedarim 9,1(41b);quoted in Samuel Belkin, In His Image:The Jewish Philosophy of Man as Expressed in the Rabbinical Tradition(London 1961).

【146】Sanhedrin 4,5

【147】Hilkot Rozeah 1,4.

【148】Sifra on Leviticus 22:6;Mekilta on Exodus 22:6;quoted in Belkin, op. cit.

【149】Deuteronomy 17:15;Philo, Spec. Leg.,4:157,quoted in Belkin, op.cit.

【150】Abot 4,8.

【151】Berakot 55a.

【152】Yer. Shabbat 3d.

【153】Horayot 3,7—8,quoted in Belkin, op. cit.

【154】Baba Kamma 8,1.

【155】Baba Bathra 2b;Baba Metziah 108b;Baba Bathra 6b,21a. Quoted in Belkin, op.cit.

【156】Belkin, op. cit.,134ff.

【157】Philo, De Sacr. Ab.,121—125.

【158】Proverbs 3:17.

【159】Psalms 29:11;Tractatus Uksin 3:12;quoted in Meyer Waxman, Judaism, Religion and Ethics(New York 1958).

【160】Isaiah 52:7.

【161】Quoted in Waxman, op. cit.,187—190.

【162】Contra Apionem, ii 177—178.

【163】Kiddushim 71a.

【164】Ben Sasson, op. cit.,373—382.

【165】F. Holmes Duddon, The Life and Times of St Ambrose,2 vols(Oxford 1935).

【166】Charles C. Torrey, The Jewish Foundation of Islam(Yale, new edn 1967).

第三章

【1】A. Adler(ed.),The Itinerary of Benjamin of Tudela(London 1840—1,reprinted New York 1927).

【2】Andrew Sharf, Byzantine Jewry from Justinian to the Fourth Crusade(London 1971),21.

【3】Ibid.,25—26.

【4】Quoted inibid.,136.

【5】Cecil Roth, Personalities and Events in Jewish History(Philadelphia 1961),‘The Jew as European'.

【6】Ibid.,40—44.

【7】Irving A. Agus, Urban Civilization in Pre-Crusade Europe,2 vols(Leiden 1965),i 9.

【8】Fritz M. Heichelheim, An Ancient Economic History,2 vols(trans.,Leiden 1965),i 104—156.

【9】For example, I Samuel 22:2;II Kings 4:1;Isaiah 50:1;Ezekiel 22:12;Nehemiah 5:7;12:13.

【10】BM 5:11,75b;Yad, Malveh 4:2;BM 5:2;BM 64b;BM 5:10,75b;Tosef, BM 6:17.

【11】BM 65a,68b,104b,61b;Tosef, BM 5:22,5:23;Sanh.:3;BM 61b,71a etc. Encyclopaedia Judaica, xii 244—256;xvi 27—33.

【12】Philo, De Virtutibus,82.

【13】Mekhilta of R. Ishmael on Exodus 22:25;Mak,24a;BM 70b.

【14】Tos. to BM 70b.

【15】Responsa Maharik 118,132.

【16】Bat Ye'or, The Dhimmi:Jews and Christians Under Islam(London 1985)45—55.

【17】S. Katz, The Jews in the Visigothic Kingdoms of Spain and Gaul(Cambridge 1937).

【18】Proverbs 8:22ff.;Ecclesiastes 1:1—5,26;15:1;24:1ff.;34:8.

【19】Avot 3:14;Lev. R.19:1;ARN 31:91;II Moses 2;14,51.

【20】Proverbs 8:14.

【21】Sifre, Deuteronomy 41;Ex. Rabbah 30,10;Tanhumah, Mishpatim 2;Philo, Spec.Leg.,iii 1—7.Quoted in Samuel Belkin, In His Image:The Jewish Philosophy of Man as Expressed in the Rabbinical Tradition(London 1961).E.R.Goodenough:The Politics of Philo Judaeus(Yale 1938),16ff.

【22】S. D.Goitein, A Mediterranean Society(California 1971),ii The Community,205—206.

【23】Ibid.,198—199.

【24】Quoted in Mark R. Cohen, Jewish Self-Government in Medieval Egypt(Princeton 1980),7—9.

【25】Ibid.,94ff.

【26】Goitein, op. cit.,iii The Family,3—5.

【27】Ibid.,i 1—28,and S. D.Goitein, Studies in Islamic History(Leiden 1966),279—295;Encyclopaedia Judaica, vii 404—407;xiv 948—949.

【28】S. D.Goitein, Letters of Medieval Jewish Traders(Princeton 1973),227—229.

【29】Genesis 37:35;letter quoted in Goitein, Letters of Medieval Jewish Traders,207.

【30】‘Moses Maimonides',in Alexander Marx, Studies in Jewish History and Booklore(New York 1969),42.

【31】Quoted Marx, ibid. 38.

【32】Ibid.,31.

【33】Ibid.,32—33.

【34】Goodenough, op. cit.,8—19.

【35】‘Maimonides and the Scholars of Southern France',inibid.,48—62.

【36】Arthur Hyman,‘Maimonides'Thirteen Principles',in Alexander Altmann(ed.),Jewish Medieval and Renaissance Studies(Harvard 1967),119—144.

【37】Erwin I. J.Rosenthal,‘Maimonides'Conception of State and Society',in Studia Semitica,2 vols(Cambridge 1971),i 275ff.

【38】Guide of the Perplexed,3:27;Hyman, op. cit.

【39】Cecil Roth,‘The People and the Book',in Personalities and Events in Jewish History,172ff.

【40】Isadore Twersky,‘Some Non-Halakhic Aspects of the Mishneh Torah',in Altmann, op. cit.,95—118.

【41】Marx, op. cit.,38—41.

【42】Guide of the Perplexed,2:45;Alexander Altmann,‘Maimonides and Thomas Aquinas:Natural of Divine Prophecy',in Essays in Jewish Intellectual History(Brandeis 1981).

【43】Ecclesiastes 7:24.

【44】‘Free Will and Predestination in Saadia, Bahya and Maimonides',in Altmann, op. cit.

【45】Quoted in H. H.Ben Sasson(ed.),A History of the Jewish People(trans.,Harvard 1976),545.

【46】Shir Hasherim Rabbah 2:14;quoted inibid.

【47】Quoted in Beryl Smalley, The Study of the Bible in the Middle Ages(Oxford 1952),78.

【48】Norman Golb,‘Aspects of the Historical Background of Jewish Life in Medieval Egypt',in Altmann, op. cit.,1—18.

【49】Samuel Rosenblatt(ed.),The Highways to Perfection of Abraham Maimonides(New York 1927),i Introduction.

【50】S. D.Goitein,‘Abraham Maimonides and his Pietist Circle',in Altmann, op.cit.,145—164.

【51】Some scholars think Philo himself was a mystic and dealer in symbols. Cf.E.R.Goodenough, Jewish Symbols in the Graeco-Roman Period,12 vols(New York,1953—68).

【52】For kabbalah, see G. Scholem's article in the Encyclopaedia Judaica, X 489—653,and hisMajor Trends in Jewish Mysticism(New York 1965).

【53】‘Moses Narboni's“Epistle on Shi'ur Qoma”',in Altmann, op. cit.,228—231;G.Scholem, Jewish Gnosticism, Merkabah Mysticism and Talmudic Tradition(2nd edn, New York 1965),36—42.

【54】R. Kaiser, Life and Times of Jehudah Halevi(New York 1949).

【55】Goitein, A Mediterranean Society, ii The Community,241—245;255—264.

【56】Ibid.,iii The Family,17—35.

【57】Ibid.,46.

【58】Meyer Waxman, Judaism:Religion and Ethics(New York 1958),‘Marriage',113ff.

【59】Goitein, A Mediterranean Society, iii 209—211.

【60】Waxman, op. cit.,118 footnote.

【61】Goitein, A Mediterranean Society, iii 50.

【62】Malachi 2:16.

【63】Goitein, A Mediterranean Society, iii 260ff.

【64】Yevamot,14,1.

【65】Goitein, A Mediterranean Society, iii 352.

【66】Ibid.,ii 211.

【67】Ibid.,148—160.

【68】Waxman, op. cit.,32—36.

【69】Ibid.,108ff.;Goitein, A Mediterranean Society, ii 225.

【70】Waxman, op. cit.,112.

【71】Mattenot Aniyim 9:3;quoted in Israel S. Chipkin,‘Judaism and Social Welfare',in Louis Finkelstein(ed.),The Jews,2 vols(London 1961),i 1043—1076.

【72】Baba Batra 8a.

【73】Quoted in Goitein, A Mediterranean Society, ii 142.

【74】Baba Batra 110a;Pesahim 113a;quoted in Chipkin, op. cit.,1067.

【75】Goitein, A Mediterranean Society, ii 138—142,and appendices A, B,C.

【76】Ibid.,ii 287.

【77】Ibid.,ii 279.

【78】B. Blumenkranz, Juifs et Chrétiens dans le monde occidental 430—1096(Paris 1960).

【79】Quoted in Cecil Roth,‘The Medieval Conception of“The Unbelieving Jew”',in Personalities and Events.

【80】A. M.Haberman(ed.),Massacres of Germany and France(Jerusalem 1946).

【81】Ibid.,94;quoted in Ben-Sasson, op. cit.

【82】Cecil Roth, The Jews of Medieval Oxford(Oxford 1951),83.

【83】Nikolaus Pevsner and John Harris, The Buildings of England:Lincolnshire(Harmondsworth 1964),158—159.

【84】V. D.Lipman, The Jews of Medieval Norwich(London 1967).

【85】Cecil Roth, Intellectual Activities of Medieval English Jewry(British Academy, London 1949),65,gives list of doctors.

【86】Lipman, op. cit.,ch.6,95—112.

【87】Augustus Jessop and M. R.James(eds),The Life and Miracles of St William of Norwich by Thomas of Monmouth(Cambridge 1896).

【88】Lipman, op. cit.,54.

【89】Roth, Personalities and Events,62—66,and his The Ritual Murder Libel and the Jews(London 1935);see also G. I.Langmuir, Speculum(1972),459—482.

【90】Ralph de Diceto, Imagines Historiarum, ii 78,quoted in Lipman, op. cit.

【91】Roth, Personalities and Events,61—62.

【92】Lipman, op. cit.,59—64.

【93】Roth's book on ritual murder prints the refutation by Pope Clement XIV in 1759.

【94】Richard W. Emery, The Jews of Perpignan(New York 1959),ch.4.

【95】M. D.Davis, Shetaroth:Hebrew Deeds of English Jews Before 1290(London 1888),298ff, quoted in Lipman, op.cit.,88;Lipman prints a number of debtbonds and quit-deeds,187ff.

【96】Quoted in Lipman, op. cit.

【97】Ibid.,68.

【98】H. G.Richardson, English Jewry under the Angevin Kings(London 1960),247—253;127—173.

【99】J. W.F.Hill, Medieval Lincoln(London 1948),217—222.

【100】Richardson, op. cit.,184—186:M.Adler, Jews of Medieval England(London 1939).

【101】Ibid.,313—333.

【102】Solomon Grayzel, The Church and the Jews in the Thirteenth Century(New York, new edn 1966),108.

【103】‘The People and the Book',in Cecil Roth, Personalities and Events,174—175.

【104】‘The Medieval University and the Jew',inibid.,91ff.

【105】Translated,1933,My Life as German and Jew.

【106】Jeremy Cohen, The Friars and the Jews:The Evolution of Medieval Anti-Semitism(Cornell 1982),14.

【107】Ibid.,242.

【108】Pierre Mandonnet, St Dominic and His Work(trans.,St Louis 1944),61.

【109】Cohen, op. cit.,13.

【110】A. G.Little,‘Friar Henry of Wadstone and the Jews',Collecteana franciscana 11(Manchester 1922),150—157;quoted in Cohen, op.cit.

【111】Quoted in Ben Sasson, op. cit.

【112】Encyclopaedia Judaica, iv 1063—1068;P. Ziegler, The Black Death(London 1969).

【113】See map inEncyclopaedia Judaica, iv 1066,for towns where atrocities occurred.

【114】Hyam Maccoby(ed. and trans.),Judaism on Trial:Jewish-Christian Disputations inthe Middle Ages(New Jersey 1982).

【115】Quoted in Grayzel, op. cit.,241,note 96.

【116】Quoted in Maccoby, op. cit.,32.

【117】Ibid.,25ff.

【118】Quoted in Ben Sasson, op. cit.,557—558.

【119】Maccoby, op. cit.,54.

【120】Cecil Roth,‘The Disputation at Barcelona',Harvard Theological Review, xliii(1950).

【121】Martin A. Cohen,‘Reflections on the Text and Context of the Disputation at Barcelona',Hebrew Union College Annual(1964);Y.Baer, A History of the Jews in Christian Spain,2 vols(trans.,Philadelphia 1961—6),i 150—162.

【122】Maccoby, op. cit.,50.

【123】Quoted in Gershom Scholem, Sabbatai Sevi:The Mystical Messiah 1626—76(trans.,London 1973),12.

【124】Peter Lineham, Spanish Church and Society(London 1983).

【125】M. M.Gorce, St Vincent Ferrer(Paris 1935).

【126】For Tortosa, see Maccoby, op. cit.;A.Pacios Lopez, La Disputa de Tortosa,2 vols(Madrid 1957).

【127】Quoted in Maccoby, op. cit.,84.

【128】Ibid.,86.

【129】A. Farinelli, Marrano:storia di un vituperio(Milan 1925),36.

【130】Quoted in Haim Beinart, Conversos on Trial:The Inquisition in Ciudad Real(Jerusalem 1981),3.

【131】Quoted inIbid.,3,footnote 4.

【132】Quoted inibid.,6.

【133】Baer, op. cit.,ii 292.

【134】Quoted in Beinart, op. cit.,66.

【135】Ibid.,10—19.

【136】Ibid.,34,footnote 40;H. C.Lea, A History of the Inquisition in Spain,4 vols(New York 1906—7),vol.i for origins.

【137】For detailed fgures see Elkan Nathan Adler, Auto da Fé and Jew(Oxford 1908),esp.ch.viii,39ff.

【138】Beinart, op. cit.,36—42.

【139】Lea, op. cit.,i 178.

【140】G. A.Bergenroth(ed.),Calendar of Letters……from Simancas(London 1861),i Henry VII, xxxivff.;quoted in Beinart, op.cit.,28.

【141】Quoted in Baer, op. cit.,ii 382.

【142】Beinart, op. cit.,130—135;204—231.See also his Records of the Trials of the Spanish Inquisition in Ciudad Real,3 vols(Jerusalem 1974—80).

【143】Lea, op. cit.,iii 83ff.

【144】Beinart, op. cit.,194.

【145】For distinctions see H. J.Zimmels, Askenazim and Sephardim(New York 1958).

【146】M. Kaiserling, Christopher Columbus and the Participation of the Jews in the Portuguese and Spanish Discoveries(London 1907);Cecil Roth,‘Who Was Columbus?',inPersonalities and Events,192ff.

【147】Cecil Roth,‘The Jewish Ancestry of Michel de Montaigne',in Personalities and Events,212ff.,prints his family tree on p. 324.See also Chaim Raphael,‘The Sephardi Diaspora'in The Road from Babylon:The Story of Sephardi and Oriental Jews(London 1985),127—158.

【148】Leon Poliakov, Les Banquiers juifs et le Saint Siège du xiii au xvii siècles(Paris 1965),80—84,147—156.

【149】Isaiah Shachar, The Judensau:A Medieval Anti-Jewish Motif and its History(London 1974).

【150】H. C.J.Duijker and N.H.Frijda, National Character and National Stereotypes(Amsterdam 1960);see also H.Fiscg, The Dual Image(New York 1971).

第四章

【1】G. K.Anderson, The Legend of the Wandering Jew(London 1965);S.W.Baron, Social and Religious History of the Jews(2nd edn, New York,1952),11177—182;Encyclopaedia Judaica, xvi 259—263.

【2】Quoted in Lionel Kochan, The Jew and his History(London 1977),39;see also Arthur A. Cohen, The Natural and Supernatural Jew(London 1967),12ff.

【3】Encyclopaedia Judaica, viii 1203—1205.

【4】Cecil Roth, Jewish Communities:Venice(Philadelphia 1930),49ff.

【5】Cecil Roth,‘The Origin of the Ghetto',inPersonalities and Events in Jewish History(Philadelphia 1961),226ff.

【6】Roth, Venice,106—107.

【7】Ibid.,46.

【8】Simhah Luzzatto, Essay on the Jews of Venice(trans.,Jerusalem 1950),122—123.

【9】Esther 2:3.

【10】Quoted in H. H.Ben Sasson(ed.),A History of the Jewish People(trans.,Harvard1976),691.

【11】J. Bloch, Venetian Printers of Hebrew Books(London 1932),5—16;Encyclopaedia Judaica, v 197;xvi 101;iv 1195—1197.

【12】Quoted in Cecil Roth,‘The Background of Shylock',in Personalities and Events,237ff.

【13】Quoted inibid.,250.

【14】Ibid.,288—289.

【15】Israel Adler,‘The Rise of Art Music in the Italian Ghetto',in Alexander Altmann(ed.),Jewish Medieval and Renaissance Studies(Harvard 1967),321—364.

【16】Roth, Personalities and Events,1—3.

【17】Alexander Marx,‘A Jewish Cause Celebre in Sixteenth Century Italy',Studies in Jewish History and Booklore(New York 1969),107—154.

【18】Cecil Roth,‘The Amazing Abraham Colorni',inPersonalities and Events,296ff.

【19】Cecil Roth,‘A Community of Slaves',inPersonalities and Events,112ff.

【20】Quoted inibid.,114—115.

【21】W. L.Gundersheimer,“Erasmus, Humanism and the Christian Kabbalah',Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institute,26(1963),38—52.

【22】Quoted in Jonathan I. Israel, European Jewry in the Age of Mercantilism(Oxford 1985),15.

【23】Cf. W.Linden(ed.),Luther's Kampfschriften gegen das Judentum(Berlin 1936).

【24】Baron, op. cit.,xiii 281—290.

【25】Israel, op. cit.,13.

【26】Ibid.,16.

【27】K. R.Stow, Catholic Thought and Papal Jewry Policy 1555—1593(New York,1977).

【28】Brian Pulhan, The Jews of Europe and the Inquisition of Venice 1550—1670(Oxford 1983),ch. 2.

【29】Ibid.,21.

【30】See, for instance, H. R.Trevor-Roper, Religion, the Reformation and Social Change(London 1967).

【31】Manasseh ben Israel,‘The Hope of Israel'(London 1652),printed in Lucien Wolf(ed.),Manasseh ben Israel's Mission to Oliver Cromwell(London 1901),50—51.

【32】Quoted in Ben Sasson, op. cit.,391.

【33】Quoted inEncyclopaedia Judaica, xii 244—256.

【34】Deuteronomy 7:13.

【35】Deuteronomy 15:6.

【36】Psalms 34:10.

【37】Quoted in Werner Sombart, The Jews and Modern Capitalism(trans.,London 1913),36.

【38】Ben Sasson, op. cit.,670—679.

【39】Israel, op. cit.,27—30.

【40】Erhard Oestreich, Neostoicism and the Early Modern State(Cambridge 1982),45—56;Israel, op. cit.,38.

【41】Roth, Venice,305—306;Benjamin Ravid, Economics and Toleration in Seventeenth Century Venice(Jerusalem 1978),30—33;Israel, op. cit.,47—48.

【42】H. I.Bloom, The Economic Activities of the Jews of Amsterdam in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries(London 1937).

【43】O. Muneles, The Prague Ghetto in the Renaissance Period(London 1965).

【44】Israel, op. cit.,96;88—90;102ff.;117.

【45】S. Stern, Court Jew(London 1950).

【46】For Oppenheimer see Israel, op. cit.,123ff.;Stern, op.cit.;M.Grunwald, Samuel Oppenheimer und sein Kreis(Frankfurt 1913);Encyclopaedia Judaica, xii 1431—1433.

【47】Quoted inEncyclopaedia Judaica, iii 402—405.

【48】Israel, op. cit.,121.

【49】B. D.Weinryb, The Jews of Poland:A Social and Economic History of the Jewish Community in Poland from 1100 to 1880(Philadelphia 1972),192—199;Encyclopaedia Judaica, v 480—484.

【50】See Gerhard Scholem,‘Zohar:Manuscripts and Editions',Encyclopaedia Judaica, xvi 211—212.

【51】For Luria see Gerhard Scholem, Major Trends in Jewish Mysticism(New York 1965),244—286,405—415;and Sabbatai Sevi:The Mystical Messiah 1626—76(trans.,London 1973),28—44.

【52】Quoted in Scholem, Sabbatai Sevi,18.

【53】For Reubeni and Molcho, see Roth, Venice,72ff.

【54】R. J.Z.Werblowski, Joseph Cro, Lawyer and Mystic(Oxford 1962).

【55】Quoted in H. H.Ben Sasson,‘Messianic Movements',Encyclopaedia Judaica, xi 1426.

【56】Isaiah 28:15—18;34:14;Habakkuk 3:5;Chronicles 21:1;Leviticus 16:8. J.Trachtenberg, The Devial and the Jews(Philadelphia 1943).

【57】J. Trachtenberg, Jewish Magic and Superstition(New York,1939).

【58】Psalms 139:14—16.

【59】Roth, Personalities and Events,78ff.

【60】Quoted by Ben Sasson, Encyclopaedia Judaica, xi 1425—1426.

【61】Scholem, Sabbatai Sevi,3ff.

【62】Quoted inibid.

【63】Quoted in Scholem, Encyclopaedia Judaica, xiv 1235.

【64】Cecil Roth, Essays and Portraits in Anglo-Jewish History(London 1962),139—64;Encyclopaedia Judaica vi 1159—1160.

【65】For his life see Cecil Roth, Life of Manasseh ben Israel(London 1934).

【66】‘Jewish Physicians in Medieval England',Roth, Essays and Portraits,46—51;Lucien Wolf, The Middle Ages of Anglo-Jewish History 1290—1656(London 1888).

【67】P. M.Handover, The Second Cecil(London 1959),ch.xiii,‘The Vile Jew'.

【68】Cecil Roth,‘Philosemitism in England',Essays and Portraits. 10—21.

【69】For this episode see Cecil Roth,‘The Mystery of the Resettlement',in Essays and Portraits,86—107.

【70】Joseph J. Blau and S.W.Baron, The Jews in the United States 1790—1840:A Documentary History,3 vols(New York 1963),i, Introduction, xviiiff.

【71】Quoted inibid.,xxi.

【72】Ibid.,xxixff.

【73】Quoted in Israel, op. cit.,134.

【74】Ibid.,129.

【75】Quoted inibid.

【76】Ibid.,130;O. K.Rabinowicz, Sir Solomon de Medina(London 1974).

【77】For the Salvadors, J. Picciotto, Sketches of Anglo-Jewish History(London 1956),109—115,153—156;for Gideon, A.M.Hyamson, Sephardim of England(London 1951),128—133.

【78】The book is translated asThe Jews and Modern Capitalism(London 1913).

【79】Alexander Marx, Studies in Jewish History and Booklore(New York 1969),‘Some Jewish Book Collectors',198—237.

【80】Commentary to Mishnah Sanhedrin, x 1,quoted in Kochan, op. cit.,20.

【81】Ibid.,55—57;M. A.Meyer(ed.),Ideas of Jewish History(New York 1974),117ff.;S.W.Baron,‘Azariah dei Rossi's Historical Method',History and Jewish Historians(Philadelphia 1964),205—239.

【82】Byron L. Sherwin, Mystical Theology and Social Dessent:The Life and Works of Judah Loew of Prague(New York 1983).

【83】For the biography, see R. Kayser, Spinoza:Portrait of a Spiritual Hero(New York 1968);R.Willies(ed.),Benedict de Spinoza:Life, Correspondence and Ethics(London 1870).

【84】Text from Willies, op. cit.,34—35,andEncyclopaedia Judaica, xv 275—284.

【85】Willies, op. cit.,35.

【86】Quoted inibid.,72.

【87】L. Strauss, Spinoza's Critique of Religion(trans.,New York 1965).

【88】For documents, seeChronicon Spinozanum,3 vols(Leiden 1921—3),i 278—282.

【89】Jonathan Bennet, A Study of Spinoza's Ethics(Cambridge 1984),32ff.

【90】Quoted inibid.,34.

【91】For an appreciation of Spinoza's thought see Bertrand Russell, History of Western Philosophy(London 1946),book iii, part 1,ch. 10.

【92】Deuteronomy 21:18—20;Sanhedrin 8,5;71a;Yebamoth 12,1—2;quoted by Samuel Belkin, In His Image:The Jewish Philosophy of Man as Expressed in the Rabbinical Tradition(London 1961).

【93】J. R.Mintz, In Praise of Ba'al Shem Tov(New York 1970);Encyclopaedia Judaica, ix 1049ff.;Martin Buber, Origins and Meaning of Hasidism(London 1960).

【94】R. Schatz,‘Contemplative Prayers in Hasidism',in Studies in Mysticism and Religion Presented to Gershom G.Scholem(Jerusalem 1967),209ff.

【95】Quoted inibid.,213.

【96】Ibid.,216.

【97】L. Ginzburg, The Gaon, Rabbi Elijah(London 1920).

【98】Quoted inEncyclopaedia Judaica, vi 653.

【99】Arthur A. Cohen, The Natural and Supernatural Jew(London 1967),20ff.

【100】Quoted inibid.,24.

【101】Isaac Eisenstein Barzilay,‘The Background of the Berlin Haskalah',in Joseph L. Blaudet al.(eds):Essays on Jewish Life and Thought(New York 1959).

【102】Quoted in Cohen, op. cit.

【103】Alexander Altmann, Essays in Jewish Intellectual History(Brandeis 1981),and Moses Me$$$delssohn:A Biographical Study(University of Alabama 1973).

【104】Quoted in Altmann, Essays.

【105】Cohen, op. cit.,27—29.

【106】Quoted inEncylopaedia Judaica, vi 153.

【107】Blau and Baron, op. cit.,xxii-xxiii.

【108】Roth, Personalities and Events,256—270.

【109】See B. C.Kaganoff, A Dictionary of Jewish Names and their History(London 1977).

【110】Herzberg, The French Enlightenment and the Jews(New York 1968).

【111】Z, Sjakowski, Jews and the French Revolutions of 1789,1830 and 1848(New York 1970).

【112】Quoted in Cecil Roth,‘Lord Geroge Gordon's Conversation to Judaism',in Essays and Portraits,193—194.

【113】Quoted inibid.,205.

【114】Cecil Roth, A History of the Great Synagogue(London 1950),214ff.

【115】Quoted inEncyclopaedia Judaica, viii 1390—1432.

【116】Quoted in Ben Sasson, History of the Jewish People,745;see Herzberg, op. cit.

【117】Quoted in Ben Sasson, History of the Jewish People.

【118】See R. Anchel, Napoléon et les Juifs(Paris 1928).

【119】F. Pietri, Napoléon et les Israelites((Paris 1965),84—115.

第五章

【1】Quoted in M. C.N.Salbstein, The Emancipation of the Jews in Britain(New Jersey 1982),98.

【2】Quoted in W. F.Moneypenny, Life of Benjamin Disraeli,6 vols(London 1910),i 22.

【3】Emile Marmorstein, Heaven at Bay:The Jewish Kulturkampf in the Holy Land(Oxford 1969),32.

【4】Quoted in H. H.Ben Sasson(ed.),A History of the Jewish People(trans.,Harvard 1976),826.

【5】Erstlingswerk(Leipzig 1894),233;quoted in Marmorstein, op. cit.

【6】The best is Bertrand Gille, Histoire de la Maison Rothschild,2 vols(Geneva 1965—7).

【7】Quoted in Miriam Rothschild, Dear Lord Rothschild:Birds, Butterflies and History(London and Philadelphia 1983),295—296.

【8】Ibid.,301.

【9】David Landes, Bankers and Pashas(London 1958),ch. 1.

【10】Harold Pollins, Economic History of the Jews in England(East Brunswick 1982),95—96.

【11】S. D.Chapman, The Foundation of the English Rothschilds,1793—1811(London 1977),20ff.

【12】See Edward Herries, Memoirs of the Public Life of John S. Herries(London 1880);Gille, op.cit.,i 45ff.;F.Crouzet, L'Économie Britannique et le blocus continental 1806—13(Paris 1958),842.

【13】Gille, op. cit.,i 458.

【14】Pollins, op. cit.;K.Helleiner, The Imperial Loans(Oxford 1965).

【15】Gille, op. cit.,ii 571;see Pollins, op.cit.,245,table 5.

【16】G. Storey, Reuters(London 1951);F.Giles, Prince of Journalists(London 1962);Ronald Palin, Rothschild Relish(London 1970),quoted in Pollins, op.cit.

【17】Miriam Rothschild, op. cit.,9.

【18】Cecil Roth, The Magnifcent Rothschilds(London 1939),21.

【19】L. H.Jenks, The Migration of British Capital to 1875(London 1963).

【20】Salbstein, op. cit.

【21】Quoted inibid.,165.

【22】Gille, op. cit.,ii 591—616.

【23】Richard Davis, The English Rothschilds(London 1983).

【24】For details, see Roth, op. cit.

【25】Miriam Rothschild, op. cit.,298.

【26】Ibid.,33.

【27】For an account of 1st Lord Rothschild, see ibid.,30—50.

【28】Ibid.,40.

【29】Quoted in Roth, op. cit.

【30】Quoted in Salbstein, op. cit.,44.

【31】Cecil Roth, Essays and Portraits in Anglo-Jewish Histroy(London 1962),18—20.

【32】Geoffrey Finlayson, The Seventh Earl of Shaftesbury(London 1981),112—116,154—159 etc.

【33】Quoted in Ronald Sanders, op. cit.,5.

【34】L. Loewe, The Damascus Affair(New York 1940).

【35】For Montefore, see Lucien Wolf, Sir Moses Montefore(London 1885).

【36】Roth, Essays and Protraits,19—20.

【37】Robert Blake, Disraeli's Grand Tour:Benjamin Disraeli and the Holy Land,1830—1(London 1982),107ff.

【38】Daien Schwarz, Disraeli's Fiction(London 1979),99—100.

【39】‘Benjamin Disraeli, Marrano Englishman',in Salbstein, op. cit.,97—114.

【40】This was the view of Judah Halevi;see H. J.Zimmels, Ashkenazim and Sephardim(New York 1959).

【41】Quoted in Blake, op. cit.,126.

【42】Quoted in Salbstein, op. cit.

【43】M. A.Meyer, The Origins of the Modern Jew(New York 1968);Wolf's article‘On the Concept of a Science of Judaism'(1822)is in Leo Baeck Institute Yearbook II(London 1957).

【44】Quoted in Lionel Kocham, The Jew and his History(London 1977),66.

【45】Arthur A. Cohen, The Natural and Supernatural Jew(London 1967),46.

【46】Quoted in Kocham, op. cit.,66.

【47】Babylon Talmud, Berakhoth 3a, quoted inibid.

【48】For Hirsch's writings see I. Grunfeld(ed.),Judaism Eternal,2 vols(London 1956).

【49】Ibid.,i 133—135,quoted in Kocham, op. cit.

【50】Kochan, op. cit.,79—80;Cohen, op.cit.,34;N.Rotenstreich, Jewish Philosophy in Modern Times(New York 1968),136—148.

【51】The English translation, by P. Bloch, is in 6 vols(London 1892—8)and 5 vols(London 1919).

【52】Quoted in Kochan, op. cit.

【53】H. Graetz, Historic Parallels in Jewish History(London 1887).

【54】Alexander Altmann,‘The New Style of Preaching in Nineteenth Century German Jewry',inEssays in Jewish Intellectual History(Brandeis 1981)..

【55】W. D.Plaut, Rise of Reform Judaism(London 1963);D.Philipson, Reform Movement in Judaism(New York 1967).

【56】M. Weiner(ed.),Abraham Geiger and Liberal Judaism(New York 1962).

【57】Quoted by Marmorstein, op. cit.,36.

【58】English translation by M. M.Kaplan(2nd edn, London 1964).

【59】S. Ginxburg, The Life and Works of M.H.Luzzatto(London 1931).

【60】Quoted in Marmorstein, op. cit.,who gives a summary of Luzzatto's teaching,5—11.

【61】See Leo Rosen, The Joys of Yiddish(Harmondsworth 1971),xviff.

【62】The Renaissance of Hebrew Literature,1743—1885(New York 1909),quoted in Marmorstein, op. cit.

【63】Laura Hofrichter, Heinrich Heine(trans.,Oxford 1963),1—2.

【64】Jeffrey L. Sammons, Heinrich Heine:A Modern Biography(Princeton 1979),40.

【65】Ibid.,171.

【66】The most important is S. S.Prawer, Heine's Jewish Comedy:A Study of his Portraits of Jews and Judaism(Oxford 1983).

【67】Heine to Moses Moser,23 August 1823;quoted in Sammons, op. cit.

【68】Heine to Immanuel Wohlwill,1 April 1823;quoted inibid.

【69】Heine to Ferdinand Lassalle,11 February 1846,quoted inibid.

【70】Heine to Moser,14 December 1825,quoted in Hofrichter, op. cit.,44.

【71】Ernst Elster(ed.),Heines samtliche Werke,7 vols(Leipzig and Vienna 1887—90),vii 407.

【72】Sammons, op. cit.,249—250.

【73】Ibid.,288.

【74】Ibid.,25—26.

【75】Ibid.,166.

【76】Ibid.,308.

【77】Quoted by S. W.Baron,‘Population',Encyclopaedia Judaica, xiii 866—903.

【78】Quoted in Ben Sasson, op. cit.

【79】Paul Lindau(ed.),Ferdinand Lassalles Tagebuch(Breslau 1891),160—161;quoted in Wistrich, op. cit.

【80】A. F.Day, The Mortara Mystery(London 1930).

【81】For Jews under the Tsars see J. Frumkin et al.(eds),Russian Jewry 1860—1917(London 1966);S.W.Baron, The Russian Jew under Tsars and Soviets(New York 1964).

【82】See Alexis Goldenweiser,‘Legal Status of Jews in Russia',in Frumkin, op. cit.

【83】Lucien Wolf(ed.),Legal Sufferings of the Jews in Russia(London 1912).

【84】Ibid.,41.

【85】Ibid. 44—46,71—76.

【86】Ibid.,2—6.

【87】Ibid.,9.

【88】I. M.Dijur,‘Jews in the Russian Economy',in Frumkin, op.cit.,120—143.

【89】Quoted in Amos Elon, Herzl(London 1976).

【90】Quoted in Ben Sasson, op. cit.

【91】Joseph L. Blau and S.W.Baron, The Jews in the United States 1790—1840:A Documentary History,3 vols(New York 1963),ii 576.

【92】Ibid.,iii 809.

【93】Ibid.,ii 327.

【94】A. B.Makover, Mordecai M.Noah(New York 1917);I.Goldberg, Major Noah:American Jewish Pioneer(New York 1937);text of his proclamation in Blau and Baron, op.cit.,iii 898—899.

【95】Ibid.,176—181.

【96】For Leeser, see Murray Friedman, Jewish Life in Philadelphia 1830—1940(Philadelphia 1984).

【97】Text in full inEncyclopaedia Judaica, xiii 570—571.

【98】H. E.Jacobs, The World of Emma Lazarus(New York 1949);E.Merriam, Emma Lazarus:Woman with a Torch(New York 1956).

【99】Encyclopaedia Judaica, xii 1092.

【100】Richard Siegel and Carl Rheins(eds),The Jewish Almanack(New York 1980),509.

【101】Psalms 137:1.

【102】Moses Hess, Rome and Jerusalem(trans.,New York 1918).

【103】Cohen, op. cit.,57—59;for Hess, see also Isaiah Berlin, The Life and Opinions of Moses Hess(Cambridge 1959).

【104】J. R.Vincent(ed.),Disraeli, Derby and the Conservative Party:The Political Journals of Lord Stanley(London 1978),32—33.

【105】J. A.Gere and John Sparrow(eds),Geoffrey Madan's Notebooks(Oxford 1984).

【106】J. J.Tobias, The Prince of Fences:The Life and Crimes of Ikey Solomons(London 1974).

【107】L. Hyman, The Jews of Ireland, London and Jerusalem(London 1972),103—104.

【108】Emily Strangford, Literary Remains of the Late Emanuel Deutsch(New York 1974).

【109】Gordon S. Haight, George Eliot(Oxford 1968),487.

【110】Encyclopaedia Britannica(London 1911),xxviii 987.

【111】For the influence of George Eliot, see Ronald Sanders, The High Walls of Jerusalem:A History of the Balfour Declaration and the Birth of the British Mandate for Palestine(New York 1984),14ff.

【112】Guy Chapman, The Dreyfus Case(London 1955),99.

【113】For French Jewry during the Dreyfus case see Michael R. Marrus, The Politics of Assimilation:The French Jewish Community at the Time of the Dreyfus Affair(Oxford 1971).

【114】Quoted inibid.,118.

【115】Léon Halévy, Résumé de l’histoire des juifs modernes(Paris 1828),325—326;quoted in Marrus, op.cit.,90.

【116】Julien Benda, La Jeunesse d'un clerc(Paris 1936),43;quoted in Marrus, op. cit.

【117】Herbert Feis, Europe the World's Banker 1870—1914(New York 1965),33ff.

【118】For the church see R. P.Lecanuet, L'église de la France sur la Troisième république((Paris 1930),231—233;Robert L.Hoffman, More Than a Trial:The Struggle over Captain Dreyfus(New York 1980),82ff.

【119】La Croix,13 November 1896,quoted in Pierre Sorin, La Croix et les Juifs 1880—1899(Paris 1967),117.

【120】Chapman, op. cit.,59.

【121】L'Aurore,7 June 1899;quoted in Marrus, op. cit.,who has a chapter on Lazare,164—195;B.Hagani, Bernard Lazare(Paris 1919).

【122】George D. Painter, Marcel Proust,2 vols(London 1977),i 210.

【123】Paul Cambon, Correspondence,2 vols(Paris 1945),i 436.

【124】Quoted in Chapman, op. cit.,199.

【125】Christophe Charles,‘Champ littéraire et champ du pouvoir:les écrivains et l’affaire Dreyfus’,Annales,32(1977).

【126】Jean-Pierre Rioux, Nationalisme et conservatisme:la Ligue de la Patrie française 1899—1904(Paris 1977),20—30;quoted in Marrus, op.cit.,148—149.

【127】Painter, op. cit.,i 220.

【128】Alain Silvera, Daniel Halévy and his Times(Cornell 1966).

【129】Painter, op. cit.,i 214ff.

【130】Janine Ponty,‘La Presse quotidienne et l'Affaire Dreyfus en 1898—99',Revue d'histoire moderne et contemporaine,21(1974).

【131】Found in a scrapbook compiled for Drumont and now(along with a mass of other Dreyfus case material)in the Houghton Library at Harvard.

【132】Frederick Busi,‘The Dreyfus Affair and the French Cinema',Weiner Library Bulletin,39—40(1976).

【133】Painter, op. cit.,i 226.

【134】Ibid.,233.

【135】R. D.Mandell,‘The Affair and the Fair:Some Observations on the Closing Stages of the Dreyfus Case',Journal of Modern History(September 1967);Douglas Johnson, France and the Dreyfus Affair(London 1966).

【136】Joseph Reinach, Histoire de l'Affaire Dreyfus,6 vols plus index(Paris 1901—8).

【137】Chapman, op. cit.,359;Charles Andler, La Vie de Lucien Herr(Paris 1932).

【138】André Gide, Journals 1899—1949(trans.,Harmondsworth 1978),194ff.

【139】Of the many books on Herzl, I have chiefly followed Elon, op. cit.

【140】Ibid.,9.

【141】Quoted inibid.,66.

【142】Ibid.,115.

【143】For the rise of völkisch anti-Semitism, see George L.Mosse, The Crisis in German Ideology(London 1966).

【144】Quoted in Elon, op. cit.,64.

【145】First English translation, Autoemancipation:An Admonition to his Brethren by a Russian Jew(New York 1906).

【146】Quoted in Walter Laqueur, Weimar:A Cultural History 1918—1933(London 1974).

【147】Elon, op. cit.,114.

【148】Pierre van Passen,‘Paris 1891—5:A Study of the Transition in Theodor Herzl's Life',in Meyer W. Weisgal(ed.),Theodor Herzl, Memorial(New York 1929).

【149】Der Judenstaat:Versuch einer modernen Loesung der juedischen Frage(Vienna 1896);H. Abrahami and A.Bein, The Editions of the Jewish State by Theodor Herzl(New York 1970).

【150】Elon, op. cit.,142—147.

【151】Ibid.,175ff.

【152】For Nordau see A. and M.Nordau, Max Nordau(trans.,London 1943).

【153】I had the privilege of addressing an international congress of Zionists and Christians from this same platform in August 1985.

【154】Chaim Weizmann, Trial and Error(London 1949),71.

【155】Elon, op. cit.,186.

【156】HisTagebücher, trans.Harry Zohn, ed.R.Patai, were published New York 1960.

【157】Elon, op. cit.,379—380.

【158】Sanders, op. cit.,29—30.

【159】Ibid.,37—38.

【160】Elon, op. cit.,405—406,397.

【161】Ibid.,237.

【162】Marmorstein, op. cit.60—70.

【163】Quoted in I. Domb, Transformations(London 1958),192—195.

【164】Quoted in Marmorstein, op. cit.,71—72.

【165】Quoted inibid.,79—80.

【166】T. Levitan, The Laureates:Jewish Winners of the Nobel Prize(New York 1906);see list of Jewish Nobel prizewinners inEncyclopaedia Judaica, xii 1201—1202.

【167】Federick V. Grunfeld, Prophets Wthout Honour(London 1979),10.

【168】For Cohen see Cohen, op. cit.,70ff.;Alexander Altmann,‘Theology in Twentieth-century Jewry',inEssays in Jewish Intellectual History.

【169】For Rosenzweig and Rosenstock-Huessy see Altmann, op. cit.,and N.N.Glatzer(ed.),Franz Rosenzweig:His Life and Thought(2nd edn, New York 1961).

【170】Quoted in Grunfeld, op. cit.,17.

【171】Hartmut Pogge von Strandmann(ed.),Walter Rathenau:Notes and Diaries 1907—22(Oxford 1985),98—99.

【172】Quoted in Grunfeld, op. cit.

【173】Charles Rosen, Schoenberg(London 1976),16—17.

【174】Alma Mahler, Gustav Mahler:Memories and Letters(trans.,New York 1946),90.

【175】Charles Spencer, Léon Bakst(London 1973).

【176】Serge Lifar, A History of the Russian Ballet(London 1954).

【177】Quoted in Spencer, op. cit.,127.

【178】For Bakst's moral theory of colour see Mary Franton Roberts, The New Russian Stage(New York 1915).

【179】Sidney Alexander, Marc Chargall(London 1978).

【180】Peter Gay, Freud, Jews and Other Germans(Oxford 1978),21.

【181】Ibid.,101ff.

【182】Letter to Karl Abraham, quoted in Jack J. Spector, The Aesthetics of Freud(London 1977),22.

【183】Paul Roazen, Freud and his Followers(London 1976),192—193.

【184】Ibid.,75ff.;for Freud and his wife see letter from his daughter Matilda Freud Hollitscher to Ernest Jones,30 March 1952,in the Jones archives, and Theodor Reik,‘Years of Maturity',Psychoanalysis, iv I(1955).

【185】David Bakan, Sigmund Freud and the Jewish Mystical Tradition(Princeton 1958),51—52;Sigmund Freud, Preface toTotem and Taboo(1913).

【186】Ernest Jones, Life and Work of Sigmund Freud,3 vols(New York 1953—7),i 22,184.

【187】‘On Being of the B'nai B'rith',Commentary(March 1946).

【188】Max Graf,‘Reminiscences of Sigmund Freud',Psychoanalytic Quarterly, xi(1942);Jacob Meotliz,‘The Last Days of Sigmund Freud',Jewish Frontier(September 1951);quoted in Bakan, op. cit.

【189】Jones, op. cit.,i 25,35.For Freud's own account, see M.Bonaparte, A.Freud and E.Kris(eds and trans.),Freud, Origins of Psychoanalysis:Letters to Wilhelm Fliess, Drafts and Notes 1887—1902(New York 1954),322;Bakan, op.cit.

【190】E. Stengel,‘A Revaluation of Freud's book“On Aphasia”',International Journal of Psychoanalysis(1954).

【191】H. Sachs, Freud, Master and Friend(Harvard 1944),99—100;quoted in Bakan, op.cit.

【192】Jones, op. cit.,i 348.

【193】Ibid.,ii 367;Sigmund Freud,‘The Moses of Michelangelo',Collected Papers, iv 251—287.

【194】Bakan, op. cit.,246—270.

【195】Robert S. Steele, Freud and Jung:Conflicts of Interpretation(London 1982);W.McGuire(ed.),Freud-Jung Letters(Princeton 1974),220.

【196】Max Schur, Freud Living and Dying(London 1972),337.

【197】Jones, op. cit.,ii 148.

【198】Steven Marcus, Freud and the Culture of Psychoanalysis(London 1984),50—53.

【199】Quoted inibid.,83.

【200】For Breuer, see Sigmund Freud,‘Origins and Development of Psychoanalysis',American Journal of Psychology, xxi(1910),181;Roazen, op. cit.,93—99.

【201】Fritz Wittels, Sigmund Freud(New York 1924),140;quoted in Bakan, op. cit.

【202】Quoted in Roazen, op. cit.,197.

【203】Jones, op. cit.,ii 33.

【204】For Freud's rows, see Roazen, op. cit.,194ff.,204ff.,220ff.,234ff.etc.

【205】Jones, op. cit.,iii 208.

【206】Ibid.,iii 245.

【207】Arthur Koestler, The Invisible Writing(London 1955).

【208】For Einstein's contribution to quantum theory see Max Jammer,‘Einstein and Quantum Physics',in Gerald Holton and Yehuda Elkana(eds),Albert Einstein:Historical and Cultural Perspectives(Princeton 1982),59—76.

【209】‘What I Believe',Forum and Century 84(1930);quoted in Uriel Tal,‘Ethics in Einstein's Life and Thought',in Holton and Elkana, op. cit.,297—318.

【210】Einstein, Physics and Reality(New York 1936).

【211】Henri Bergson, Two Sources of Morality and Religion(trans.,London 1935).

【212】Einstein to Solovine,30 March 1952,quoted in Yehuda Elkana,‘The Myth of Simplicity',in Holton and Elkana, op. cit.,242.

【213】Milic Capek, The Philosophical Impact of Contemporary Physics(Princeton 1961),335ff.;see also William James,‘The Dilemma of Determinism',in The Will to Believe(London 1917).

【214】Yehuda Elkana, op. cit.

【215】For this, see my Modern Times:The World from the Twenties to the Eighties(New York 1983),ch. 1,‘A Relativistic World'.

【216】Lionel Trilling, Mind in the Modern World(New York 1973),13—14.

【217】‘The Hunter Graccus'. Graccus or graculus is Latin for jackdaw, Czech kavka, and Kafka's father, whom he hated, had a jackdaw sign over his shop.See Lionel Trilling, Prefaces to the Experience of Literature(Oxford 1981),118—122.

【218】Quoted in Rosen, op. cit.,10.

【219】Grunfeld, op. cit.,23—24.

第六章

【1】Asquith speech inThe Times,10 November 1914.

【2】Interview with Mrs Halperin in Eric Silver, Begin(London 1984),5,9.

【3】Ronald Sanders, The High Walls of Jerusalem:A History of the Balfour Declaration and the Birth of the British Mandate for Palestine(New York 1984),315ff.

【4】Chaim Weizmann, Trial and Error(London 1949),15—25.

【5】Ibid.,29,44.

【6】Sanders, op. cit.,64—69.

【7】New Statesman,21 November 1914,article signed A. M.H.(Albert Montefiore Hyamson).

【8】Michael and Eleanor Brock(eds),H. H.Asquith:Letters to Venetia Stanley(Oxford 1952),406—407.

【9】Ibid.,477—478;485.

【10】Quoted in Sanders, op. cit.,313—314.

【11】Miriam Rothschild, Dear Lord Rothschild:Birds, Butterflies and History(London and Philadelphia 1983),45.

【12】Sanders, op. cit.,69,133.

【13】Weizmann, op. cit.,144;doubts have been cast on this story;see Sanders, op.cit.,94—96.

【14】Quoted in Sanders, op. cit.

【15】For the collections see Miriam Rothschild, op. cit.

【16】Weizmann, op. cit.,257.

【17】Montagu was not present at the war cabinet of 31 October 1917;see Sanders, op. cit.,594—596,which also gives text of the fnal letter.

【18】Weizmann, op. cit.,262.

【19】Ibid.,298;Sanders, op. cit.,481.

【20】Weizmann, op. cit.,273—274.

【21】Text of the mandate in David Lloyd George, The Truth About the Peace Treaties,2 vols(London 1938),ii 1194—1201.

【22】Weizmann, op. cit.,288.

【23】Ibid.,67.

【24】Vladimir Jabotinsky, The Story of the Jewish Legion(trans.,Jerusalem 1945);P. Lipovetski, Joseph Trumpeldor(trans.,London 1953).

【25】Yigal Allon, The Making of Israel's Army(New York 1970);J. B.Schechtman, The Vladimir Jabotinsky Story,2 vols(New York 1956—61).

【26】Amos Elon, Herzl(London 1976),179.

【27】Neil Caplan, Palestine Jewry and the Arab Question 1917—25(London 1978),74,169ff.

【28】Quoted in S. Clement Leslie, The Rift in Israel:Religious Authority and Secular Democracy(London 1971),32.

【29】Weizmann, op. cit.,316.

【30】Ibid.,307—308.

【31】Sanders, op. cit.,569—570,for full text of message.

【32】Elie Kedourie,‘Sir Herbert Samuel and the Government of Palestine',in TheChatham House Version and Other Middle East Studies(London 1970),57.

【33】8 June 1920;Letters and Papers of Chaim Weizmann(New Brunswick 1977),xi 355.

【34】Quoted in Kedourie, op. cit.,55—56.

【35】Quoted in Neil Caplan,‘The Yishuv, Sir Herbert Samuel and the Arab Question in Palestine 1921—5',in Elie Kedourie and Sylvia G. Haim(eds),Zionism and Arabism in Palestine and Israel(London 1982),19—20.

【36】Kedourie, op. cit.,60—62.

【37】Quoted inibid.,65.

【38】Bernard Wasserstein,‘Herbert Samuel and the Palestine Problem',English Historical Review,91(1976).

【39】Kedourie, op. cit.,69.

【40】Weizmann, op. cit.,325,494.

【41】Lloyd George, Peace Treaties,1123ff.

【42】Ibid.,1139.

【43】Caplan,‘The Yishuv',31.

【44】Quoted in Wasserstein, op. cit.,767.

【45】Quoted in R. H.S.Crossman, A Nation Reborn(London 1960),127.

【46】Weizmann, op. cit.,418.

【47】Quoted inEncyclopaedia Judaica, iv 506.

【48】Weizmann, op. cit.,411.

【49】Quoted in Leslie, op. cit.(1938 interview).

【50】‘On the Iron Wall',1923;quoted in Silver, op. cit.,12.

【51】Robert S. Wistrich, Revolutionary Jews from Marx to Trotsky(London 1976),77ff.;see also J.P.Nettl, Rosa Luxemburg,2 vols(London 1966).

【52】Letter to Mathilee Wurm,16 February 1917,quoted inibid.

【53】See K. Pindson(ed.),Essays in Anti-Semitism(2nd edn, New York 1946),121—144.The Encyclopaedia Judaica, xiv 459,gives the fgure as 60000;H.H.Ben Sasson(ed.),A History of the Jewish People(trans.,Harvard 1976),gives 75000;the Soviet fgure is 180000—200000.

【54】Quoted in Leon Poliakov, History of Anti-Semitism, vol. iv, Suicidal Europe,1870—1933(Oxford 1985),209.

【55】The Cause of World Unrest,10,13,131—132.

【56】Illustrated Sunday Herald,8 February 1920,quoted in Poliakov, op. cit.

【57】Morning Post,6 October 1921,quoted in Poliakov, op. cit.

【58】Robert Wilson, The Last Days of the Romanovs(London 1920),148.

【59】P. Lévy, Les Noms des Israélites en France(Paris 1960),75—76.

【60】Quoted in Paul J. Kingston, Anti-Semitism in France during the 1930s:Organization, Personalities and Propaganda(Hull 1983),4.

【61】Paul Hyman, From Dreyfus to Vichy:The Remaking of French Jewry(Columbia 1979),35.

【62】Léon Blum, Nouvelles Conversations de Goethe avec Eckermann(Paris 1901),quoted in Wistrich, op.cit.

【63】Harvey Goldberg,‘Jean Jaurès on the Jewish Question’,Jewish Social Studies(April 1958).

【64】A. Mitchell Palmer,‘The Case Against the Reds',Forum, February 1920;Poliakov, op.cit.,231—232.

【65】For Brandeis'legal philosophy, see Philippa Strum, Louis D. Brandeis:Justice for the People(Harvard 1985).

【66】West Virginia State Board of Education v. Barnette(1943).

【67】G. Saleski, Famous Musicians of Jewish Origin(New York 1949).

【68】T. Levitan, Jews in American Life(New York 1969),96—99,199—203,245—246.

【69】Quoted in Lary May, Screening Out the Past:The Birth of Mass Culture and the Motion-Picture Industry(Oxford 1980).

【70】See Philip French, The Movie Moguls(London 1967).

【71】Ibid.,21.

【72】French, op. cit.,28.

【73】Raymond Durgnat, The Crazy Mirror:Hollywood Comedy and the American Image(London 1969),150—161;78—83.

【74】May, op. cit.,171.

【75】Helen and Robert Lynd, Middletown(New York 1929).

【76】Edward J. Bristow, Prostitution and Prejudice:The Jewish Fight Against White Slavery 1870—1939(New York 1984).

【77】Jenna Weissman Joselit, Our Gang:Jewish Crime and the New York Jewish Community 1900—1940(New York 1983).

【78】For Jewish gangsters see Albert Fried, The Rise and Fall of the Jewish Gangster in America(New York 1980).

【79】Melvin Urofsky, American Zionism:From Herzl to the Holocaust(New York 1975),127.

【80】Quoted in Ronald Steel, Walter Lippmann and the American Century(London 1980),187.

【81】James Grant, Bernard Baruch:The Adventures of a Wall Street Legend(New York 1983),223ff.,shows that he merely salvaged most of his fortune after the market broke;he was never worth more than between$10 million and$15 million.

【82】Ibid.,107—109.

【83】Steel, op. cit.,189.

【84】‘Public Opinion and the American Jew',American Hebrew,14 April 1922.

【85】Quoted in Steel, op. cit.,194.

【86】Quoted inibid.,330—331.

【87】New York Times,11 April 1945;for polls see Davis S. Wyman, The Abandonment of the Jews:America and the Holocaust 1941—45(New York 1984),8—9.

【88】Fritz Stern,‘Einstein's Germany',in Holton and Elkana, op. cit.,322ff.

【89】Ibid.,324—325.

【90】E. J.Gumpel produced a statistical survey of these murders and sentences, Vier Jahre politisches Mord(Berlin 1922),quoted in Grunfeld, op.cit.

【91】Mein Kampf(1962 edn),772.

【92】Walter Laqueur, Russia and Germany:A Century of Conflict(London 1962),109ff.;Poliakov, op. cit.,iv 174.

【93】Robert Wistrich, Hitler's Apocalypse:Jews and the Nazi Legacy(London 1986),14—19.

【94】Quoted in Raul Hilberg, The Destruction of the European Jews(rev. edn, New York 1985),i 20—21.

【95】Zentralblatt für Psychotherapie, vii(1934);quoted in Grunfeld, op.cit.

【96】Fritz Stern, The Politics of Cultural Despair(Berkeley 1961),291.

【97】Fritz K. Ringer, The Decline of the German Mandarins:The German Academic Community 1890—1933(Harvard 1969),446.

【98】George L. Mosse, The Crisis in German Ideology(London 1966),196.

【99】Michael S. Steinberg, Sabres and Brownshirts:The German Students'Path to National Socialism,1918—35(Chicago 1977),6—7;P.G.J.Pulzer, The Rise of Political Anti-Semitism in Germany and Austria(New York 1964),285ff.

【100】Dennis E. Showalter, Little Man, What Now?Der Stürmer in the Weimar Republic(Hamden, Connecticut 1983).

【101】Istvan Deak, Weimar Germany's Left-wing Intellectuals:A Political History of the Weltbühne and its Circle(Berkeley 1968);Harold L.Poor, Kurt Tucholsky and the Ordeal of Germany 1914—35(New York 1968).

【102】Quoted in Walter Laqueur, Weimar:A Cultural History 1918—1933(London 1974),45.

【103】Mosse, op. cit.,144.

【104】Donald L. Niewyk, The Jews in Weimar Germany(Manchester 1981),has a chapter on this subject,‘The Jew as German Chauvinist',165—177.

【105】Laqueur, Weimar,72.

【106】Ibid.,75ff.

【107】Mosse, op. cit.,242.

【108】Roger Manvell and Heinrich Fraenkel, The German Cinema(London 1971),7ff.

【109】Laqueur, op. cit.,234ff.

【110】Gershom Scholem, Walter Benjamin:The Story of a Friendship(London 1982);Jews and Judaism in Crisis(New York 1976),193.

【111】Richard Wolin, Walter Benjamin:An Aesthetic of Redemption(New York 1982),40—43.

【112】Walter Benjamin, Illuminations(trans.,New York 1969),255:Wolin, op. cit.,50ff.

【113】Terry Eagleton, Walter Benjamin, or Towards a Revolutionary Criticism(London1981).

【114】Hilberg, op. cit.,i 30ff.

【115】Institut für Zeitgeschichte, Munich;quoted in Wistrich, Hitler’s Apocalypse,31—32.

【116】Max Domarus(ed.),Hitler:Reden und Proklamationen 1932—45(Würzburg 1962),i 537.

【117】Hilberg, op. cit.,i 39.

【118】Ibid.,46,footnote 1.

【119】Ibid.,69—75.

【120】Ibid.,96—107.

【121】Ibid.,190—191.

【122】Ibid.,ii 416;Lucy S. Davidowicz, The War Against the Jews,1933—45(London 1975),141;Martin Gilbert, The Holocaust(New York 1986),526.

【123】Benjamin Ferencz, Less than Slaves:Jewish Forced Labour and the Quest for Compensation(Harvard 1979),25.

【124】Hilberg, op. cit.,i 254.

【125】Ferencz, op. cit.,28.

【126】Robert H. Abzug, Inside the Vicious Heart:Americans and the Liberation of Nazi Concentration Camps(Oxford 1985),106.

【127】Ferencz, op. cit.,22.

【128】Ibid.,appendix 3,202ff.;Höss affdavit,12 March 1947.

【129】Ferencz, op. cit.,19.

【130】Hilberg, op. cit.,i 87.

【131】David Irving, Hitler's War(London 1977).

【132】Gerald Fleming, Hitler and the Final Solution(Berkeley 1984),refutes it.

【133】H. R.Trevor-Roper(ed.),Hitler's Table Talk 1941—44(London 1973),154.

【134】Wistrich, Hitler's Apocalypse,37;and see his ch. 6,‘Hitler and the Final Solution',108ff.

【135】Davidowicz, op. cit.,132.

【136】Ibid.,134;Alexander Mitscherlich and Fred Mielke, Doctors of Infamy:The Story of the Nazi Medical Crimes(New York 1949),114.

【137】Hilberg, op. cit.,i 281.

【138】Ibid.,308.

【139】Ibid.,332—333.

【140】The camps were listed by the German government, Bundesgestzblatt,24 September 1977,pp. 1787—1852;the fgure of 900 labour camps was given by Höss.

【141】Hilberg, op. cit.,i 56.

【142】Davidowicz, op. cit.,130.

【143】Jochen von Lang, Eichmann Interrogated(New York 1973),74—75.

【144】Louis P. Lochner(ed.),The Goebbels Diaries 1942—43(New York 1948).

【145】Figures taken from Davidowicz, op. cit.,appendix B,402f.

【146】The basic evidence for Nazi killings comes from Trials of Major War Criminals before the International Military Tribunal,44 vols(Nuremberg 1947),Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression,8 vols plus supplement(Washington DC 1946),and Trials of War Criminals before the Nuremberg Military Tribunals under Control Council Law No. 10,15 vols(Washington DC).

【147】Luba Krugman Gurdus, The Death Train(New York 1979);Martin Gilbert, Final Journey(London 1979),70.

【148】Hilberg, op. cit.,i 581;Gilbert, Final Journey,78.

【149】For case histories see Leonard Gross, The Last Jews in Berlin(London 1983).

【150】Ibid.

【151】Austria's anti-Jewish war-record is summarized in Howard M. Sacher, Diaspora(New York 1985),30ff.

【152】Hilberg, op. cit.,ii 457—458.

【153】Figures from Julius S. Fischer, Transnistria, the Forgotten Cemetery(South Brunswick 1969),134—137.

【154】Davidowicz, op. cit.,383—386.

【155】Bagatelle pour un massacre(Paris 1937),126;for Céline see Paul J.Kingston, Anti-Semitism in France during the 1930s(Hull 1983),131—132.

【156】Jean Laloum, La France Antis mite de Darquier de Pellepoix(Paris 1979).

【157】M. R.Marrus and R.O.Paxton, Vichy France and the Jews(New York 1981),343.

【158】André Halimi, La Délation sous l’occupation(Paris 1983).

【159】Herzl's diary,23 January 1904;Cecil Roth, The History of the Jews of Italy(Philadelphia 1946),474—475.

【160】Meir Michaelis, Mussolini and the Jews(Oxford 1978),52.

【161】Ibid.,11ff.,408;Gaetano Salvemini, Prelude to World War II(London 1953),478.

【162】Michaelis, op. cit.,353—368.

【163】Oral History Collection, The Reminiscences of Walter Lippmann,248—250;Meryl Secrest, Being Bernard Berenson(New York 1979).

【164】Holocaust statistics vary. I have taken the Hungarian figures from Monty Noam Penkower, The Jews Were Expendable:Free World Diplomacy and the Holocaust(Chicago 1983),214.See the set of fgures, and sources, in Encyclopaedia Judaica, viii 889—890.

【165】F. E.Werbell and Thurston Clarke, Lost Hero:The Mystery of Raoul Wallenberg(New York 1982);Alvar Alsterdal,‘The Wallenberg Mystery',Soviet Jewish Affairs, February 1983.

【166】David S. Wyman, The Abandonment of the Jews:America and the Holocaust,1941—5(New York 1984),97.

【167】Penkower, op. cit.,193.

【168】Charles Stember(ed.),Jews in the Mind of America(New York 1966),53—62;Wyman, op. cit.,10—11.

【169】Boston Globe,26 June 1942;New York Times,27 June 1942. The Times had an extensive summary of the report on 2 July, however.

【170】Nation,19 May 1945;Abzug, op. cit.,136—137.

【171】Wyman, op. cit.,313 and footnote.

【172】Ibid.,112ff.

【173】Penkower, op. cit.,193.

【174】Wyman, op. cit.,299.

【175】Hilberg, op. cit.,i 358.

【176】For Betar see Marcus, Social and Political History of the Jews in Poland 1919—38,271—273;Silver, op. cit.,19ff.

【177】Hilberg, op. cit.,i 186—187.

【178】About one-third of it has been published:Lucjan Dobroszynski(ed.),The Chronicle of the Lodz Ghetto,1941—44(Yale 1984).

【179】Penkower, op. cit.,292,337—338,note 10.

【180】Gilbert, The Holocaust,426—427.

【181】Davidowicz, op. cit.,301.

【182】Ibid.,289.

【183】Deuteronomy 28:66—67.

【184】Yaffa Eliach(ed.),Hasidic Tales of the Holocaust(Oxford 1983).

【185】Arnold J. Pomerans(trans.),Etty:A Diary,1941—3(London 1983).

【186】For Warsaw, see Yisrael Gutman, The Jews of Warsaw,1939—43:Ghetto, Underground, Revolt(trans.,Brighton 1982);Hilberg, op. cit.,ii 511—512.

【187】See‘Rose Robota, Heroine of the Auschwitz Underground',in Yuri Suhl(ed.),They Fought Back(New York 1975);Philip Muller, Auschwitz Inferno:The Testimony of a Sonderskommando(London 1979),143—160.

【188】Ferencz, op. cit.,21.

【189】Ibid.,20.

【190】Gilbert, The Holocaust,461.

【191】Hilberg, op. cit.,ii 438.

【192】Gilbert, The Holocaust,457.

【193】Abzug, op. cit.,106.

【194】Gilbert, The Holocaust,419.

【195】Ibid.,808,793.

【196】International Military Tribunal Nuremberg, Document NG-2757,quoted in Gilbert, The Holocaust,578.

【197】Abzug, op. cit.,152ff.

【198】Ibid.,160.

【199】Gilbert, The Holocaust,816ff.

【200】For statistics of war trials, seeEncyclopaedia Judaica, xvi 288—302.

【201】For a useful summary, see Howard Sachar, op. cit.,7—13.

【202】Quoted in Ferencz, op. cit.,Introduction, xi.

【203】Ibid.,189.

【204】The Council debates are summarized in Bea's own book, The Church and the Jewish People(London 1966),which gives the text of the Declaration in appendix I,147—153.

第七章

【1】Amos 3:2..

【2】Arthur A. Cohen, The Natural and Supernatural Jew(London 1967),180—182.

【3】Robert Wistrich, Hitler's Apocalypse:Jews and the Nazi Legacy(London 1986),162ff.

【4】Quoted in H. H.Ben Sasson(ed.),A History of the Jewish People(trans.,Harvard 1976),1040.

【5】Churchill to Sir Edward Grigg,12 July 1944;Monty Noam Penkower, The Jews Were Expendable:Free World Diplomacy and the Holocaust(Chicago 1983),ch. 1,‘The Struggle for an Allied Jewish Fighting Force',3ff.

【6】Evelyn Waugh, The Holy Places(London 1952),2.

【7】Eric Silver, Begin(London 1984),8.

【8】Menachem Begin, White Nights(New York 1977).

【9】Michael Bar-Zohar, Ben Gurion:A Biography(London 1978),129.

【10】Thurston Clarke, By Blood and Fire(London 1981),116.

【11】Silver, op. cit.,67—72.

【12】Nicholas Bethell, The Palestine Triangle:The Struggle Between the British, the Jews and the Arabs(London 1979),261ff.

【13】Michael J. Cohen, Palestine and the Great Powers(Princeton 1982),270—276,for the British decision to withdraw.

【14】Alfred Steinberg, The Man from Missouri:The Life and Times of Harry S. Truman(New York 1952),301.

【15】The Forrestal Diaries(New York 1951),324,344,348.

【16】Petroleum Times, June 1948.

【17】Rony E. Gabbay, A Political Study of the Arab-Jewish Conflict(Geneva 1959),92—93.

【18】Edward Luttwak and Dan Horowitz, The Israeli Army(New York 1975),23ff.

【19】For the course of the fghting see Edgar O'Ballance, The Arab-Israeli War 1948(London 1956).

【20】Jabotinsky Archives;quoted in Silver, op. cit.,90.

【21】For an account of the Deir Yassin affair, seeibid.,88—95.

【22】See maps and fgures on the provenance and distribution of Arab and Jewish refugees in Martin Gilbert, The Arab-Israel Conflict:Its History in Maps(London 1974),49,50.

【23】Cairo Radio,19 July 1957.

【24】Genesis 15:1—6;12:1—3.

【25】Gilbert, op. cit.,11,for map of 1919 proposal.See also maps in Encyclopaedia Judaica, ix 315—316.

【26】Gilbert, op. cit.,24,for map of Peel proposal.

【27】Quoted in W. D.Davies, The Territorial Dimension in Judaism(Berkeley 1982),114—115;see also Ben Halpern, The Idea of the Jewish State(2nd edn, Harvard 1969),41ff.

【28】For the Sinai War see Chaim Herzog, The Arab-Israeli Wars(London 1982).

【29】For the Six Day War see Terence Prittie, Israel:Miracle in the Desert(2nd edn, London 1968).

【30】For the Yom Kippur War see Herzog, op. cit.

【31】For the Israel-Egypt peace negotiations see two eye-witness accounts, Moshe Dayan, Breakthrough(London 1981);Ezer Weizman, The Battle for Peace(New York 1981).

【32】Quoted in S. Clement Leslie, The Rift in Israel:Religious Authority and Secular Democracy(London 1971),63ff.

【33】Amos Perlmutter, Israel:the Partitioned State:A Political History since 1900(New York 1985),ch. 7;R.J.Isaacs, Israel Divided:Ideological Politics in the Jewish State(Baltimore 1976),66ff.

【34】Text of the Law of Return(as amended 1954,1970)is given in Philip S. Alexander, Textual Sources for the Study of Judaism(Manchester 1984),166—167.

【35】For this ruling see ibid.,168—171.

【36】For immigrants from Europe see map in Gilbert, op. cit.,51;detailed immigration figures up to 1970 are inEncyclopaedia Judaica, ix,534—546.

【37】B. C.Kaganoff, A Dictionary of Jewish Names and their History(London 1977).

【38】Bar-Zohar, op. cit.,171—172.

【39】Silver, op. cit.,99—108.

【40】Dan Horowitz and Moshe Lissak, Origins of the Israeli Polity:Palestine Under the Mandate(Chicago 1978).

【41】Emile Marmorstein, Heaven at Bay:The Jewish Kulturkampf in the Holy Land(Oxford 1969),142—143.

【42】For Ben Gurion's struggles see Perlmutter, op. cit.,15—17,131—135.

【43】Quoted inibid.,145.

【44】Speech in the Knesset,20 June 1977.

【45】‘With Gershom Scholem:An Interview',in W. J.Dannhauser(ed.),Gershom Scholem:Jews and Judaism in Crisis(New York 1976).

【46】Marmorstein, op. cit.,80—89.

【47】Ibid.,108ff.

【48】I. Domb, Transformations(London 1958).

【49】Solomon Granzfried, Kissor Shulan'Arukh, ch. 72,paras 1—2.

【50】Leslie, op. cit.,52ff.

【51】Z. E.Kurzweil, Modern Trends in Jewish Education(London 1964),257ff.

【52】Quoted in Marmorstein, op. cit.,144.

【53】Case quoted in Chaim Bermant, On the Other Hand(London 1982),55.

【54】Quoted inibid.,56.

【55】Quoted in Leslie, op. cit.,62.

【56】Numbers 5:2—3.

【57】Numbers 19:17—18.

【58】N. H.Snaith, Leviticus and Numbers(London 1967),270—274.

【59】Immanuel Jacobovits, The Timely and the Timeless(London 1977),291.

【60】I Chronicles 28:19.

【61】For the arguments, see Jacobovits, op. cit.,292—294.

【62】Encyclopaedia Judaica, XV 994.

【63】Such as Richard Harwood, Did Six Million Really Die?(New York 1974)and Arthur Butz, The Hoax of the Twentieth Century(New York 1977).

【64】For the charges see Moshe Pearlman, The Capture and Trial of Adolf Eichmann(London 1963),appendix 633—643.

【65】Ibid.,85.

【66】Ibid.,627.

【67】Hanoch Smith,‘Israeli Reflections on the Holocaust',Public Opinion(December—January 1984).

【68】Quoted in John C. Merkle, The Genesis of Faith:The Depth Theology of Abraham Joshua Herschel(New York 1985),11.

【69】Cohen, op. cit.,6—7.

【70】See the useful map,‘World Jewish Population 1984',in Howard Sachar, Diaspora(New York 1985),485—486.

【71】H. S.Kehimkan, History of the Bene Israel of India(Tel Aviv 1937).

【72】For Indian Jews see Schifra Strizower, The Children of Israel:The Bene Israel of Bombay(Oxford 1971)and Exotic Jewish Communities(London 1962).

【73】Quoted in Encyclopaedia Judaica, ix 1138—1139.

【74】P. Lévy, Les Noms des Isra lites en France(Paris 1960),75—76.

【75】Quoted in P. Girard, Les Juifs de France de 1789 à 1860(Paris 1976),172.

【76】Domenique Schnapper, Jewish Institutions in France(trans.,Chicago 1982),167,note 22.

【77】Irving Kristol,‘The Political Dilemma of America Jews',Commentary(July 1984);Milton Himmelfarb,‘Another Look at the Jewish Vote',Commentary(December 1985).

【78】D. M.Schreuder, The Scramble for Southern Africa,1877—1895(Oxford 1980),181ff.;Freda Troup, South Africa:An Historical Introduction(London 1972),153ff.

【79】For the Jewish pioneers see Geoffrey Wheatcroft, The Randlords:The Men WhoMade South Africa(London 1985),51ff.,202ff. For the second generation see Theodore Gregory, Ernest Oppenheimer and the Economic Development of Southern Africa(New York 1977).

【80】Quoted in Wheatcroft, op. cit.,205 footnote.

【81】J. A.Hobson, The War in South Africa:Its Cause and Effects(London 1900),esp.part II, ch.1,‘For Whom Are We Fighting?'

【82】J. A.Hobson, Imperialism:A Study(London 1902),64.

【83】R. K.Karanjia, Arab Dawn(Bombay 1958);quoted in Wistrich, Hitler's Apocalypse,177.See Y.Harkabi's important compilation, Arab Attitudes to Israel(Jerusalem 1976).

【84】For instance The Palestine Problem(1964)published by the Jordanian Ministry of Education, and a handbook under a similar title put out by the Indoctrination Directorate of the United Arab Republic Armed Forces.

【85】Encyclopaedia Judaica, iii 138,147.

【86】D. F.Green(ed.),Arab Thelogians on Jews and Israel(3rd edn, Geneva 1976),92—93.

【87】Wistrich, Hitler's Apocalypse,181.

【88】Leon Roth, Judaism:A Portrait(London 1960).

【89】Joshua 1:9.

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